Friday, May 17, 2019

C H I N A
 1892-1895 WORLD TOUR OF GEORGE BULLOUGH

Written from first-hand research and illustrated from his personal Photographic Archive by
George W. Randall. Descriptive text relates to period of visit, i.e. early 1890’s unless otherwise stated.

COPYRIGHT   *   17 MAY MMXIX  *  George W. Randall Research and Photographic Archive

 BLOG 84 - ALBUM XVI  *  Photographs 17 - 30  


In Blog 83 I published the first sixteen of thirty photographs depicting late 19th century China 
and Hong Kong as collected by George Bullough and his travelling companion, 
Robert Mitchell, during their 1892-1895 World Tour and mounted in Album XVI 
of twenty albums in the library at Kinloch Castle, Scotland, Bullough’s Highland home.

Blog 84 continues with images 17 - 30, covering Canton and Shanghai, 
plus a copy of each of the eight photographs in the bound foldout panorama titled: 
Shanghai Bund - Kung Tai - Photographer.

҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉    ҉    ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉



Album XVI  *  Image 17  *  No Title  *  Size 10½ x 7½ inches
---------------------------------------------------

Image 17 in World Tour Album XVI - China - bears no title.
However, the location is not China but Aden* (today Yemen), a major port and
 coaling station on the Red Sea route to the Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire - 
India, in the nineteenth century.

Bullough and Mitchell's outward journey in September 1892 on-board the 6,610 ton 
P & O liner R.M.S. Oceana called at Aden after passing through the Suez Canal  to take on 
more coal for her onward journey to Colombo, Ceylon (today Sri Lanka) and finally Australia.

On their return Mitchell wrote a series of articles which were published in the 
local newspaper commencing May 1896. 
In Article 3 of twenty-eight he recalls their stop-over in the port of Aden.
*   IMAGE 17 DEPICTS: Prince of Wales' Crescent, Aden.
Immediate left the Grand Hotel de L'Univers and second from right 
Hotel de L'Europe,both hotels under French management.

REFERENCE: “An Account of the British Settlement of Aden in Arabia” by F. M. Hunter - Published 1877.

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SEARCH ON GOOGLE:
 Art Treasures of Kinloch Castle Gibraltar, Malta, Suez Canal, Aden to Colombo, Ceylon.
Blog 44   -   Article 3 of 38.

I have included this photograph of Aden in Blog 84 
because it is in World Tour Album XVI - CHINA - it has been added to Blog 44.

Album XVI  *  Image 17  *  No Title  *  Detail from full size 10½ x 7½ inches

At the time of George Bullough's travels the Grand Hotel de L'Univers, Aden, was described 
as a long, low structure with stone archways and patios with lattice shutters on the windows, 
located on Prince of Wales Crescent, named in honour of the royal visit of Edward, 
Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII, in 1874, “a street that curved gently away 
from the sea to the barren dun-coloured hills that brooded over the beach.”

Album XVI  *  Image 17  *  No Title  *  Detail from full size 10½ x 7½ inches
Hotel de L'Europe, 61 The Crescent, Aden.

Due to its strategic location an agreement was made in 1835 with the local Sultan to use Aden 
as a coaling station; this became increasingly important as steam power rapidly overtook sail.
The opening of the Suez Canal, the “Red Sea Route”, in 1869, was of vital strategic and 
commercial value, particularly for Great Britain and the “Jewel” in her crown, India.
Previously ships travelling east went via the Cape of Good Hope, the only alternative 
being passengers and freight using the “Mediterranean Route” would have no alternative 
but to disembark at Alexandria and travel overland before boarding
 another vessel at Suez.

In 1870 a submarine cable link became operational between Bombay, India and Suez operated by the Eastern Telegraph Company which erected “handsome premises on Ras Baradlee” (Ra’s Barādlī),  a point on Aden's south coastal 
plain east of Telegraph Bay.
    
Album XVI  *  Image 17  *  No Title  *  Detail from full size 10½ x 7½ inches
FURTHER READING:  PLEASE GOOGLE-
“An Account of the British Settlement of Aden in Arabia” by F. M. Hunter - Published 1877.

҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉



FURTHER READING ON SHANGHAI: PLEASE GOOGLE-
Building Shanghai  - The Story of China’s Gateway 
by Edward Denison and Guang Yu Ren
Album XVI   *   Image 18   *   Size 10¾ x 8½ inches
CHINESE DRINKING CHIN-CHIN FOR NEW YEAR

“Chin-chin”, an English pronunciation of “qing qing”,
 has been used to express good wishes before drinking for over two hundred years and
is still used on occasions today.


҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉

Album XVI   *   Image 19   *   Size 10¾ x 8¼ inches
WOODEN BRIDGE ENTERING ENGLISH ENCLOSURE, CANTON

The bridge, called the English Bridge, crosses a canal at the entrance to the British Enclosure, 
also termed a Legation, equivalent of modern day embassy.
The British and French Concessions were adjacent to each other along Canal Street facing 
the canal. The British Concession was by far the larger and included tennis courts, 
a football ground and public gardens.










More correctly called Kwang-chow, Canton at the time of George Bullough's visit was described 
as a large commercial city on the eastern bank of the Pearl River, the houses being mostly 
two storeys, the ground floor serving as a shop, their owners "attentive, 
civil and expert men of business."
The Eastern Telegraph line reached Canton in 1885. 

҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉

LOOKING FROM CANTON RIVER ON TO FRENCH AND ENGLISH CONCESSIONS.
Album XVI   *   Image 20   *   Size 11 x 8¼ inches

The river wall (left) crowded with sampans and junks.

LOOKING FROM CANTON RIVER ON TO FRENCH AND ENGLISH CONCESSIONS.
Album XVI   *   Image 20   *   Detail from full size 11 x 8¼ inches

A contemporary view of Canton by Ellen Peck from her book, "Travels in the Far East", 
observed twelve years after George Bullough's visit:

"The first impression of Canton is one of noise, a fearful din rising and falling in a kind of cadence, and seeming to proceed largely from an immense flotilla of boats extending a long way, tied,
in a majority of cases, seven and eight rows deep - craft of all kinds, sampans, junks, rice boats, freight, each with its quota of humanity, for this is a veritable floating city, with a life all of its own, and almost wholly independent of the Canton proper ... with its hundred thousand souls.
We had not anticipated much enjoyment in Canton, having read of the dirt and smells, 
but we had not expected to be deafened at our very entrance, and I think for the time being 
it dulled the consciousness of this wonderful spectacle of a floating independent city just 
at the door of a city whose name is famous the world over."

҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉








ENGLISH AND FRENCH CONCESSIONS SHOWING    (space in title)    HOTEL CANTON
Album XVI   *   Image 21   *   Detail from full size 10¾ x 8¼ inches


ENGLISH AND FRENCH CONCESSIONS SHOWING (space in title) HOTEL CANTON
Album XVI   *   Image 21   *   Detail from full size 10¾ x 8¼ inches

҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉
Canton River Showing Pagoda
Album XVI  *  Image 22  *  Size 10½ x 8 inches


The Canton river referred to is the Pearl River and the pagoda, whilst not specifically identified, 
is most likely the Pazhou Pagoda on Whampoa (Huangpu) island.
Three years in construction, the Pazhou Pagoda was completed in 1600.
Standing 194 feet (59 metres) high on a 42 foot diameter base the octagonal tower comprises 
nine main sections its  purpose to “allow safe navigation of merchant ships travelling along 
the Pearl River towards Canton.”


Canton River Showing Pagoda
Album XVI  *  Image 22  *  Detail from full size 10½ x 8 inches

҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉
GARDEN BRIDGE SHANGHAI LEADING TO ASTOR HOUSE

Album XVI  *  Image 23  *  Size 10½ x 8½ inches

Garden Bridge was completed in August 1876 and remained in use until 1906.
Wood construction on timber pilings, it crossed the 70 mile long Huanqpu River at its
confluence with Suzhou Creek, the last significant tributary of the mighty 3,915 mile long
Yangtze before it reaches the East China Sea.
Measuring 385 feet (110.3 metres) in length with a width of 40 feet (12.19 metres)
it had seven foot wide walkways on each side.

Established in 1846 by Peter Felix Richards, a pioneer Scottish merchant born in Edinburgh 
in 1808 and one of the first foreign residents of Shanghai, Astor House, known at the time
as Richard’s Hotel, was the first western hotel in China.
Enlarged numerous times, in 1858 it relocated to the north end of Garden Bridge,
being renamed Astor House.

GARDEN BRIDGE SHANGHAI LEADING TO ASTOR HOUSE
Album XVI  *  Image 23  *  Detail from full size 10½ x 8½ inches

GARDEN BRIDGE SHANGHAI LEADING TO ASTOR HOUSE
Album XVI  *  Image 23  *  Detail from full size 10½ x 8½ inches

҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉    ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉

JARDINE MATHISON & Co. BUND  SHANGHAI
Album XVI  *  Image 24  *  Detail from full size 10½ x 8½ inches


The Shanghai address was No. 27 The Bund.
Jardine Matheson commenced trading in the city in 1843 after renting almost 26,000 square yards 
of land and erecting “a typical two storied gardened English cottage in 1845.”
 In 1865 it was replaced by the three storey building in the photograph

complete with “gatehouse and canopy.”

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Jardine Matheson & Co. was founded in 1832 by William Jardine and James Matheson.
Jardine was born near Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire, Scotland in 1784, the sixth of seven children.  
Aged sixteen he enrolled at Edinburgh University Medical School, graduating in 1802. 
With eastern trade offering more promise than the prospect of farming, 
the following year he joined the British East India Company 
and, as surgeons mate, sailed on the three decked East Indiaman Brunswick to China. 
For the next fourteen years as ship's surgeon of the firm, Jardine took full advantage 
of his employee’s “cargo privilege” and traded in three of China’s traditional 
medicines; cochineal, cinnamomum cassia and musk.

FURTHER READING PLEASE GOOGLE-
"Opium and Empire: The Lives and Careers of William Jardine and James Matheson"
by Richard J. Grace 2014

JARDINE MATHISON & Co. BUND  SHANGHAI
Album XVI  *  Image 24  *  Detail from full size 10½ x 8½ inches

Twelve years the junior of his ultimate partner, William Jardine, 
James Nicolas Sutherland Matheson was born at Lairg, Scotland in 1796. 
Educated at Edinburgh University he spent two years in a commercial law office in London 
before joining Mackintosh, Burn & Co., his uncle’s trading company in Calcutta, India. 
Incensed by his nephew’s failure to deliver an important letter, James’s uncle suggested 
he return to Britain. In the process of booking passage, 
following an encounter with a sea captain, James boarded a ship for Canton.





It was 1820 in Bombay, India, that James Matheson first met William Jardine. 
They formed a partnership with English born Hollingworth Magnia (a merchant and 
connoisseur of mediæval art) and Daniel Beale, a fellow Scottish trader and fur merchant. 
Initially trading between China and India, they later expanded to include London, England.

1832 saw the founding of Jardine Matheson & Co., Ltd., Canton, China, traders in
a variety of merchandise including cotton, tea and silk as well as trafficking in opium.
Two years after the ceding of Hong Kong to Great Britain in 1842 formalised in the
Treaty of Nanking following the First Opium War, Jardine Matheson established its
new head office in the Colony and proceeded to expand along the coast of mainland China.
At the time of George Bullough’s visit to Shanghai, Jardine Matheson was the largest
foreign trading company in the Far East, its interest having expanded to
include shipping and railway construction.

҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉    ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉
SHANGHAI  CLUB
Album XVI  *  Image 25  *  Size 10½ x 8½ inches. 


Established in 1861 and originally named “The Correspondent’s Club” the Shanghai Club
was the first British gentleman’s club in the rapidly growing city. 
Located along the Bund, Shanghai's waterfront, the red brick, three-storey building depicted 
was erected in 1864 and hosted many world figures of the day including 
former United States President, fifty-seven year old Ulysees Grant in 1879.
In 1909 the building was demolished and replaced with a six-storey Baroque Revival structure
of reinforced concrete which opened the following year. During the 1920’s and 1930’s
it was the most exclusive club in Shanghai with forty guest rooms.

SHANGHAI  CLUB
Album XVI  *  Image 25  *  Detail from full size 10½ x 8½ inches

҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉    ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉

PAVILION AND RACECOURSE SHANGHAI
Album XVI  *  Image 26  *  Size  10½ x 8½ inches.

Between 1862 and 1919 the course, its turf described as “smooth as a billiard table”,
 held two, four day meetings a year, known as“The Grand Festivals of Shanghai”. 
Run in Spring - late April/early May, and Autumn - late October/early November, 
the most prestigious race being the Champions Stakes.
The clock tower was added around 1890 to the original buildings built in the 1860’s.





GENERAL VIEW  RACECOURSE SHANGHAI
Album XVI  *  Image 27  *  Size  10½ x 8½ inches.

҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉    ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉   ҉   ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉ ҉҉ ҉
Named after the city of Nanking (Nanjing), capital of the neighbouring province of Jiangsu,
Nanking Road remains the main shopping street of Shanghai.
From 1845 it was  called Park Lane, after several extensions it was formally 
re-named Nanking Road in 1862.
Today, at almost 3½ miles  (5½kms.) in length, it is the world’s longest shopping street
and one of the world’s busiest shopping areas attracting over one million shoppers per day!



Built in 13th century English Gothic Revival Style of red brick with stone dressing to the 
design of Sir George Gilbert Scott, R.A., 1811-1878, the Anglican Cathedral of Holy Trinity, Shanghai, comprises nave, two transepts, aisles, chancel and two chapels for vestry and organ.

Opened for worship in August 1869, replacing the earlier Trinity Church after its roof collapsed 
in a storm, it was designated a Cathedral of the Diocese of North China under the supervision 
of the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1875.
Built on a cruciform foundation is supported on eight thousand wooden piles.
The Cathedral itself measures 152 feet long, 58½ feet wide and 54 feet high
The 105 foot high free-standing bell tower was erected in 1893.
The original 2,500 pipe organ, the largest in Asia at the time, was built by 
Walker and Walker of London, England, and installed in 1883.



Although not specifically identified, research indicates this is the Buddhist Longhua Pagoda,
part of the largest, most authentic and complete ancient temple complex in
Shanghai preserving the architectural design of the Song Dynasty, 960-1279AD.
Longhua Temple occupies almost five acres (20,000 sq. metres) the tallest structure being
the Padgoda standing 132 feet 7 inches high (40 metres). The basic structure of the
Pagoda is a hollow brick core surrounded by a wooden staircase finely decorated with
balconies, banisters and upturned eaves. Although previous pagodas existed
on the current site, the base and body was constructed in 977AD during the
Wuyue kingdon ruled by Qian Chu, last king of the Qian family.



******************************************************************

COVER OF SHANGHAI BUND FOLD-OUT.


Starting left to right, the first of eight panoramic albumen prints on joined card
mounts in a bound, 7½ x 19 inch oblong, black morrocco album with green morrocco 
gilt title-piece depicting Shanghai Bund by photographer Kung Tai 
collected by George Bullough during his World Tour visit to China in 1894/5.
 The 250 degree panorama was taken from Pootung on the south side of the
Huangpu River which flows through central Shanghai.
Today Shanghai is the world's largest city.

Although undated the panorama dates 1893 (or thereafter) when the chiming clock is
recorded as being installed in the 110 foot high tower of the
Shanghai Customs House depicted in Image Three.

Image One of eight: View south-west depicts shipping moored along the Quai de Wampoo 
in the French concession (granted in 1849) and the Quai de France added in 1861 
to facilitate sea trade between France and China.
Images Two (above) and Three (below) of eight continue to the right.

This view includes the offices of the French merchant shipping company,
Messageries Martimes, created in 1851, and popularly known as “MesMar” or by its initials 
“MM” located near Yang King Creek, marking the boundary of the French Settlement.
The single funnel steamboat entering from the right could be Messageries Maritime’s 
3,791 ton Oxus”, built in 1879.
1871-1914 was the golden period of French colonial expansion in the Far and Middle East.
The three-storey Shanghai Club is also visible. (See image 25.)


In 1893 a chiming clock was installed in the 110 foot high tower 
of the Shanghai Customs House, 
the only property on the Bund owned by the Chinese.

Previously a time-ball was raised up a dedicated mast in the 
French Concession; halfway to depict 11.45 a.m., 
to the top 11.55 a.m. and released to drop 
at 12 noon denoting the precise time.

Image Four (above) of eight continues to the right. 



ABOVE: A similar view from a nine image panorama of  Shanghai Bund (dated 1898) by the same photographer 
more clearly depicting the water tower referred to.

View westward depicting left to right the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China 
and the Central Hotel. The Shanghai water tower is discernible in the centre of the print, 
with the spire of the Protestant, Gothic style Union Church in Suzhou Road, 
by forty-four year old Scottish architect William Macdonnel Mitchell Dowdall, R.I.B.A.
built in 1886 just visible extreme right. Dowdall worked in Shanghai for forty years.




Image Five of eight continues to the right. (Detail below.)

The large white building is the German Consulate, the Japanese Consulate to its right.
with the spire of Union Church in Suzhou Road left. The twelve arch wooden Garden Bridge 
crosses Suzhou Creek on the north bank of which is Astor House Hotel.
(See Image 23.)


Image Six of eight continues to the right.
Image Six of eight continues to the right
Depicting the eastern most part of Shanghai which at the time led to open country.
Numerous wharves, including those of Jardine Matheson, line the river
Image Seven of eight continues to the right.


Image Eight of eight continues to the right.
Detail below.



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MOST RECENT UPDATE 19 JUNE 2019

GEORGE W. RANDALL RESEARCH AND PHOTOGRAPHIC ARCHIVE

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