Saturday, March 21, 2020

ART  TREASURES  OF  KINLOCH  CASTLE
  PART  THREE  OF  A  SERIES  

Written by George W. Randall from first hand research and illustrated 
from my personal photographic archive. 

Kinloch Castle, Isle of Rum, Scotland.
A further selection of the vulnerable 300+ Oil Paintings, 
Watercolours and Prints within this late Victorian/Edwardian Hunting Lodge on the Isle of Rum, 
off Scotland’s West Coast built for Sir George Bullough, Bt.  

Lady Monica Bullough.
Sir George Bullough, Bt.

I am devoting this selection to some of the mysterious 
and unidentified works in the hope my readers 
can throw light on these intriguing images.




I start with the strangest of all ... ... ...




This satanic image is completely at odds with all the other pictures in 
Kinloch Castle!!


The natural light photograph was taken on the 
17th of October 2007.  
Mounted on card, unframed and unprotected, the print measures 19½ x 14½ inches. 

There is no indication as to artist or title. It is badly scratched and scuffed. In October 2007 it was located in the former Piper’s Room off the Great Hall gallery, and in 2011 was found in the first floor south landing loft along with numerous other discarded and badly damaged works.
It is not identified in its own right in any of the four Inventories of Castle Contents 
in my possession.

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THE CAUSEWAY, ST. GEORGES, BERMUDA
Original oil  -  signed: W.E.C. 1899  

In March 1996 an art conservator was commissioned by Scottish Natural Heritage to undertake an appraisal of “Twenty-Five Easel Paintings in Kinloch Castle” of which
“The Causeway” was one.
The canvas, which measures
12 x 9 inches, and frame were
found to be “stable and sound”.
The surface was described as “poor” 
being “engrained (with) dirt”.

Research has so far failed to reveal the identity  of the artist, W.E.C.


St. George’s is one of the principal islands of Bermuda and the first to be extensively colonised. Covering an area of 703 acres it was connected to its neighbouring island, St. David’s, which in turn was connected by a bridge and causeway to the main island, the latter, constructed by Royal Engineers on reclaimed land, was opened in September 1871 
to a plan approved by Irish born architect Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Albert Hime, R.E., 
and known as Hime’s Causeway, replacing the Bermuda Government link built 
in 1864 and destroyed in a hurricane. 

During the Anglo-Boer War, 1899-1902, five thousand Boer prisoners were housed
on several of  Bermuda’s islands


The canvas is securely fastened to its stretcher / strainer which is in good condition 
with all eight wedges present. The 1996 Appraisal revealed no warping, 
splitting, mould or worm damage.

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Despite the 1871 Causeway being wrecked by a hurricane on the
 1st of September 1880 it was rebuilt to Hime’s original design. Nineteen years later, on the 14th of September, another hurricane destroyed three quarters of a mile of the bridge section.
Hurricanes Felix (1995) and Fabian (2003) again caused massive damage, resulting in a tunnel alternative being considered.

Construction of two new bridges, one fixed the other swing, commenced in 2019 and are due for completion in 2021.


Winsor & Newton, Limited

38 Rathbone Place, 

London, W.

445791




Founded by William Winsor and Henry Chares Newton in 1832 the firm originally traded as Winsor and Newton and from 1882 as Winsor and Newton, Limited. It remains today one of very few early 19th century artist’s supply businesses 
still trading although no longer in family hands.
The Army & Navy Co-operative Society, Ltd.
105-107, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.
No. 12 Dept. Fine Art Section
Oil Paintings Cleaned, Restored, Relined,
Engravings Cleaned and Repaired
Every description of Gilding, Picture Frames, Girandoles* Furniture, &c., &c.
Order No. 1225   
                                                                                                                              * lighting                                              
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ORIGINAL OIL ON CANVAS
An original 21 x 20 inch oil on canvas signed M. Goad.
(Photographed October 2007) 

The edges are scuffed and several areas 
have peeled away revealing the ground layer.

The Piper's Room was cleared of its contents c2012 due to damp, being directly under the cold water tank at the top of the Castle tower.

Some items “disappeared” others were carelessly stored in the luggage loft off the first floor south corridor.

There is no record of this painting 
in any of the four inventories of contents
 in my possession.

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BROCON BEACH BY SYDNEY WATTS WHITE

A 12 x 8½ inch print on card signed by Sydney W. White and dated Apl. 99 (April 1899). 


When the photograph was taken in November 2006 
the picture was stored in the Piper’s Room off the Gallery in the Great Hall. It was unframed and unprotected,
 the edges were chipped and the surface 
suffering minor scratches.

The reverse bears the inscription: G516 brocon Beach.

Brocon could refer to the Brocon Pass, located at almost 5,300 feet in the Italian Alps 
between the Vanoi and Tesino valleys. The Pass is described as “very wide” 
an interesting feature being that for 2½ miles it is level in appearance very much
 like the Highlands of Scotland. Its strategic position meant the region played an 
important role in both World Wars and reputedly is where underground bunkers 
and trenches dug by the Austrian army are still to be found.


THE ARTIST  -  SYDNEY W. WHITE

I have been unable to find a detailed biography of the life of artist Sydney Watts White. Although sometimes referred to as Sidney W. White, he signed his work 
Sydney W. White
usually followed by the year date.

Born in Caistor, Lincolnshire, twenty miles north-east of Lincoln in 1870, he was primarily a portrait painter of the aristocracy, amongst his subjects was Lady Randolph Churchill, mother of Sir Winston. He also painted landscapes and worked in both watercolour and oils. He moved to an address in Great Ormond Street, London, in the late 1890’s and later to Kensington. 
He married in 1906 and died aged seventy-five in Tadworth, Surrey, in 1945.

The painting above left is a 100 x 75 inch oil by 
Sydney White of Miss Gladys Bullough, half-sister to George Bullough, and is displayed facing the top of the south stairwell  on the first floor south landing in Kinloch Castle. 

The work is dated 1901, when Gladys was thirteen years old, she was born in 1888, 
daughter of George Bullough’s father, John, and his second wife, Alexandria.


The portrait was for many years considered to be that of Bullough’s daughter, Hermione, until the author noticed the date 1901. Sir George and Lady Bullough’s daughter Hermione was not born until the 5th of November 1906.

I received confirmation of the identity of Gladys from her cousin, the Honourable John George Lambton, son of Hermione, Countess of Durham and her husband, Lord Lambton, in 2005.

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MONKS IN WINE CELLAR 


A pair of glazed, ornately gilt framed prints of Monks Sampling Wine described as being displayed in the “Caretaker’s Dining Room”* 
in the 1978 Inventory of Castle Contents:
“Item 911 Two coloured prints of monks in wine cellar,
 in gilt frame, glazed.”
(*See photograph left taken in July 1998.)

In the 1992 and 1996 Inventories (pages 46 and 36 respectively), when the Castle was being run as an exclusive hotel plus Hostel in the former servant’s quarters, the prints are still in the Caretaker’s Dining Room” which from 1995 (the separate hotel operation having ceased) was used as a dining room for non self -catering hostelers and called the “Bistro.”

Both the 1992 and 1996 Inventories record word for word:

“Two framed prints, The Friar Vintners” which are lumped together with “two 18th century etchings and one other print.”


Photographed in November 2006, the print above, (along with its pair) 
was frameless, unprotected and languishing in the damp Piper’s Room 
with many other damaged pictures.

Why were the pictures taken down and not replaced?  
On whose authority? 

How did their frameless condition happen?


A possible artist is German painter Eduard von Grüttzner born in Poland in April 1846
and noted for his genre paintings of monks. He was a pupil of  Bavarian Herman Dyck in Munich thereafter studying at the Academy of Fine Arts under Karl Theodor von Piloty.
Aged twenty-four Grüttzner opened his own studio in Munich which proved so famous
that Prince Regent Luitpold of Austria granted him the title of “professor.”
In 1880 he was awarded the Order of Merit of St. Michael, and was knighted in 1916.
Eduard von Grüttzner died in Munich in April 1925.

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WATERCOLOUR BY LADY BULLOUGH



Phillips' 1978 Castle Inventory - Item 612:
Location:  Sir George Bullough's Bedroom
Description: “Water coloured drawing (of) 2 soldiers on horseback in white painted frame.”

The reverse reads:
“Painted by Monica L. Bullough”
Date undecipherable.

The painting is not listed separately in later inventories.


It was found, no longer in its frame and unprotected, in the Piper's Room in 1997 when the photographs were taken.



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ENGRAVING SIGNED DOUGLAS ADAMS

This glazed framed engraving measures 26 x 18 inches 
the border bears the signature: Douglas Adams (W. Douglas Adams 1853-1920)
The engraving itself is signed: W. Douglas Adams 1893.



W. Douglas Adams was born in Birmingham (England) in 1853 and died in 1920.
His genre centred on wildlife, landscape and sporting scenes, particularly Scottish Highland 
and coastal views. His studio was in London’s Haymarket and he exhibited at a number 
of galleries including the Royal Academy.

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The lower edge of the frame is inscribed:

“J.C.B. TO G.B. August 14th 1896 
FORSAN ET HAEC OLIM MEMINISSE JUVABIT.”
(Translates: Perhaps some day it will please us to recall even these things.)
Quotation from Virgil’s Aeneid Book 1 line 203.

Clearly a gift to G.B. (George Bullough) however a search of the Rum Deer Forest Game Book
records no guest with the initials J.C.B. in the year 1896.

The engraving depicts the Black Cuillin, a range of gabbro rock mountains on the Isle of Skye as viewed from Sligachan at the head of  Loch Ainort, one of the islands many sea lochs.
The peak  is Sgurr nan Gillean (3,170 feet),
to its right Am Basteir (3,064 feet) with its “tooth” or Inaccessible Peak.

Two stalkers approach the Royal (twelve point) Stag they have shot.

The photograph was taken in May 1996 at which time it was displayed above the fireplace in the Visitor's Common Room
The 1978 Phillips' of Scotland Inventory of Castle Contents records:
“Item 1230 Hostel Dining Room* Engraving - Landseer of Dead Deer, D. Adams.”
* Former Caretaker's Dining Room.

In the 1992 and 1996 Inventories it was lumped together as "one other print" with 
"two 18th century etchings" and the two gilt framed colour prints of monks in their wine cellar.

Around 1996/7 all these pictures were removed when the Dining Room (Bistro) 
was redecorated and never returned.
The Douglas Adams work was then displayed above the fireplace in the former Ghillies Room (Visitor’s Common Room by the courtyard gateway). 
In 2000 it was removed again, this time being stored on its side directly on the floor in the Gun Room off the Great Hall and consequently no longer on display to visitors.

It was still in the Gun Room in March 2006 when the image below was taken.


I have found no evidence that this engraving by Douglas Adams is a copy of an original by Sir Edwin Landseer as implied in Phillips' 1978 Inventory description.
However, a colour version exists under the title 
“Fallen Monarch”, is that the original and the engraving 
a copy by the same artist?

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ORIGINAL WATERCOLOUR
by BYRON COOPER

George Gordon Byron Cooper was born in Manchester, England, in 1850. 
He commenced his artistic studies at the cities Academy of Fine Arts and later in Paris under the French naturalist painter Jules Louis Breton and director of the French Academy Charles Émile Durand. 

Aged twenty-nine Cooper first exhibited at London’s Royal Academy in 1879, 
and again in 1883 and 1901. 
In 1889 he was awarded Place of Honour for his painting Grange Fell exhibited in that years Paris Salon Exhibition. 

Cooper painted in both oils and watercolour and several originals of both depicting views on the island of Rum were commissioned by Sir George Bullough and hang in Kinloch Castle. 

This watercolour measures 51 x 25 inches and depicts a rocky cleft at the old township of Harris on the island. It is signed lower right and dated 1902. The ornate gilt frame is deteriorating with large portions already lost particularly along the bottom edge.  


This photograph, taken in July 1997, also shows clusters of black mold spores growing on the inside of the glass due to damp, high humid conditions.


POSTED 21 MARCH 2020

CONTINUES  WITH 

TREASURES  OF  KINLOCH  CASTLE

  PART FOUR (under construction)

Saturday, February 29, 2020

TREASURES  OF  KINLOCH  CASTLE
  PART TWO
Researched, written and illustrated from his personal archive 
by George W. Randall.

A further selection of the vulnerable 300+ Oil Paintings, Watercolours and Prints within  
this  late  Victorian  Hunting  Lodge on the  Isle  of  Rum, off Scotland’s West Coast.


The second of a series of blogs on the photographs and pictures within Kinloch Castle, in which I highlight the consequences 

totally failed management and complete indifference 
over sixty-three years  

have, and continue to wrought on the contents, particularly the pictures, in this

publicly owned Castle purchased with tax-payers’ money!


The east façade of Kinloch Castle overlooks Loch Scresort, the island's only sea loch.
*
On the 28th of February 1957, the eighty-seventh anniversary of the birth of
Sir George Bullough, Bt., his widow sold their forty square mile island along with 
Kinloch Castle  -  its late Victorian/Edwardian furnishings in-situ  - 
to the Conservative Government of the day for £23,000, 
the island to be used in perpetuity as a nature reserve.



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THE MOST DRAMATIC PAINTING IN KINLOCH CASTLE

A striking full-face depiction of a mounted cavalry officer wielding his sword in outstretched right hand, his snorting black Charger at full gallop!

 Original Watercolour  -  signed R. C. W.

Displayed in the Billiard / Games Room at Kinloch Castle this undated original 18 x 12 inch watercolour signed R.C.W.  still bears the Inventory of Contents identification number 150 carried out in 1978 by auctioneers Phillips of Scotland, Ltd., when it was described simply as “Another water colour drawing.”



Phillips carried out further inventories in 1992 and 1996, the latter being an almost word for word copy of the former, in which the painting was  described: “Other assorted items (including) watercolour of charging horseman.”

In the 2007 Inventory fine art auctioneers Bonhams also bundled it with other items, 
describing them on page 60: “The remaining contents of the (billiard) room including a framed photograph, ... watercolour of charging horseman ... print of Rum, carved elephant, 
various photographs, various games.”



Regrettably this system of bunching items seems to have been common practice amongst Britain's leading auction houses, thereby completely defeating the purpose of the exercise not 
only in terms of identification and valuation of individual items, but also highlighting 
any damage and more importantly, losses over time. 


THE ARTIST: R.C.W.
RICHARD CATON WOODVILLE (b.1856 - d.1927)


Richard Caton Woodville was born in London on the 7th of January 1856. His father, 
also Richard Caton, was an American artist from Baltimore who spent his professional career in Europe and sadly died five months before his son was born.

Richard (jnr.) studied at the Düsseldorf School of Painting under the Prussian military artist Professor Wilhelm Camphausen, who specialised in historical and battle scenes, later under Professor Franz Jean-Esuard von Gebhardt at the Academy of St. Petersburg and finally under the renowned French painter and sculptor Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824 – 1904) in Paris.

As an accomplished artist Woodville worked primarily for The London Illustrated News, but also made contributions to The TatlerStrand Magazine and 
Cornhill Magazine; articles which very soon earned 
him a reputation as a talented illustrator and reporter.
Hungerford Virtual Museum



At twenty-one years of age he was sent to report on the 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War between the Russian and Ottoman Empires; a conflict involving over half a million men, it was his first experience of the horrors of bloody battle.

In 1879 joined the cavalry unit of the Royal Berkshire Yeomanry staying until 1914, 
at which time, aged sixty, he joined the 
National Reserve as a captain.

From July to September 1882 Woodville covered the Anglo-Egyptian War, between British forces under Field Marshal Viscount Wolseley and those of Egypt and Sudan under Egyptian nationalist, lieutenant colonel Ahmed Arabi who sought to end British and French influence in his country by deposing the ruler, Mohamed Tewfik Pasha.

 (British concern centred on fear of  default by Egypt on her national debt of 
£100 million, requiring  two-thirds of Egypt’s revenue to service, and control of the Suez Canal opened in 1869 which halved the journey time to the jewel in the British crown, India, and through which four fifths of shipping was British. The uprising ended with the bombardment of Alexandria, Egypt becoming a British protectorate remaining under British control until the end of 
World War II.)


THE PAINTING 


The Royal Berkshire Cavalry served in the Boer War, 1899 – 1902, and from his sketches Woodville saw action as a reporter and possibly as a combatant. 
Indeed, the Elandslaagte battle entered British folklore under the title “Ell and Slaughter”, referring to the devastating, no quarter given cavalry attack.


Eight days into the conflict, 
the 19th of October 1899, after cutting the telegraph line, and just as a supply train steamed into the station
 the Boers overran the small, dusty railway town of Elandslaagte, KwaZulu, Northern Natal, on the line between the towns of Dundee and Ladysmith, sixteen miles north-east of Ladysmith, 

This not only cut the key British supply route but any prospect of retreat by rail for British forces under attack at Dundee.


On the 21st of October, 1899, in what soon developed into a violent thunderstorm as darkness was rapidly falling, British and Boer forces engaged at Elandslaagte.

A total force of 3,500 British led by 
Field Marshal Sir John French, a firm exponent of the use of cavalry, and General Sir Ian Hamilton in command of the infantry faced 
one thousand Boers under General Johannes Kock (who was captured and died shortly after of his wounds in hospital at Ladysmith), 
and Lieutenant Colonel Adolf Schiel, who was also captured but survived the war.

The British victory, which ended when a conventional cavalry charge turned the Boer retreat into a bloody rout, resulted in fifty-five of their number killed and 205 injured, with forty-six Boers killed, 105 wounded with 181 captured or missing. Elandslaagte is seen as “one of the few clear-cut tactical successes by the British during the conflict.”


Barely two weeks later the famous one-hundred and sixteen day Siege of Ladysmith commenced lasting from the 2nd of November 1899 to 28th of February 1900.

The writer suggests that based on the above facts, the darkness of Mr. Woodville's watercolour the work represents a scene from the Elandslaagte battle.

Further, the facial similarity between the rider in the painting and the artist suggest a self-portrait, real or imagined, of his participation in this famous cavalry charge.


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Displayed at a height of over six feet at the east end of the ground floor south corridor
by Lady Bullough’s Drawing Room is this glazed, ebony framed 
Representation of the Battle of Drunmossie Moor measuring 39 x 22 inches.

A REPRESENTATION OF THE BATTLE ON DRUNMOSSIE MOOR NEAR CULLODEN
in SCOTLAND. Shewing the manner of the Victory Obtained by HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS
THE DUKE OF CUMBERLAND over the Rebels on Wednesday the 16 of April 1746*
in which were killed and taken Prisoners  about Five Thousand, besides their Baggage,
Tents, Colours and Standards, &c.


* NOTE: Although the descriptive title states Wednesday the 16 of April 1746 
the 16th of April 1746 was in fact a Saturday.



The engraving depicts a series of scenes leading up to, during and immediately following 
the Duke of Cumberland’s victory over Charles Stuart, “Bonnie Prince Charlie”, 
(grandson of the exiled King James II of England and VII of Scotland, second surviving 
son of King Charles I), and his Jacobite army at the Battle of Culloden, near Inverness, Scotland.

Prince William, Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (1721-1765) third and youngest son
of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and prince-elector
of the Holy Roman Empire, was twenty-five years old the day before the battle.

LEFT: Cumberland’s Aid-de-Camp at the Battle was twenty-two year old Coldstream Guards
Captain Lieutenant George Keppel, Viscount Bury (from 1754 3rd Earl of Albemarle)
who carried the dispatch of the Duke’s success to the king in London.

RIGHT: The four officers attending the Duke: Lieutenant-General Willem van Keppel,
2nd Earl of Albemarle (father of the Duke’s Aid de Camp); Lieutenant-General John Huske,
in December 1745 appointed deputy Commander-in-Scotland to Lt. Gen. Hawley;
Lieutenant-General Henry Hawley, Commander-in-Chief Scotland,
Cavalry commander at the battle appointed Governor of Inverness 1748-1752;
Brigadier-General Sir John Mordaunt, was detached after the battle to pursue
the Highlanders after which he was presented with Charles Stuart's coach by the
Duke as a “mark of favour.”
A Whig Member of Parliament from 1739-1761, Mordaunt was one of the first governors 
of London’s Foundling Hospital for destitute children established in 1741.

No. 7: Jacobite ladies at the Battle of Culloden:
Lady Margaret Ogilvie, Lady Janet Kinloch, Lady Henrietta Gordon, Lady Anne Mackintosh.

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The engraving depicts a series of events leading up to, 
during and following victory of the 
Duke of Cumberland’s Government forces over the Jacobite army of twenty-five year old 
Prince Charles Edward Stuart, “Bonnie Prince Charlie”, (respectively son and 
grandson of James Francis Edward Stuartson of the late exiled King James II of England), 
on Drunmossie Moor,near Inverness, Scotland on the 16th of April 1746.

Prince Charles initially landed from France on the island of Eriskay 
off Scotland’s west coast from where, in a small rowing boat, 
he landed at Glenfinnan, Loch Shiel on the Scottish mainland on 
the 19th of August 1745 where he raised his father’s standard 
and his army of supporters. 
 After a series of engagements, including the capture of Edinburgh 
and major battle at Prestonpans on the 21st of September, the Prince 
and his army marched south heading for London, capturing Carlisle, Preston and Manchester before,  in early December, reaching Derby, 
almost 450 miles from Inverness and less than 150 miles from England’s capital city. 
Outnumbered by Cumberland’s swiftly advancing army, promised support having failed
 to materialise, the Prince and his weary army was left with no option but to turn back before 
their chance of retreat was cut by superior forces. 
The decision, though supported
 by the majority caused an irretrievable split between Charles and his Scots supporters.

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No. 5:  French officer surrenders himself.


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By early February 1746, desperately short of food, weapons and money, the main Jacobite force retreated to Inverness.

By April, rather than risk a pitched battle in their continuing weakened state, 
the Prince chose to launch a surprise attack at night on Cumberland’s sleeping troops;
 but, stumbling in the dark from Inverness, exhausted and hungry,
 (their rations by this time were down to “three biscuits a day”),
 progress was painfully slow with many men falling behind.
Disagreement broke out between the Prince and his senior commanders as to whether
 they should  retreat in order to gain strength and fight another day preferably 
on higher, drier ground?
But Charles was determined and despite the dawning of the new day  
he took what proved to be the fatal decision to fight.

About 1 pm. on Saturday the 16th of April 1746 to the skirl of bagpipes, the Jacobite artillery opened fire on government soldiers across the boggy ground known as Drunmossie Moor. Cumberland’s well fed, highly disciplined government troops
responded with their own cannon; the Battle of Culloden had begun.

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No. 30: Culloden House, about two miles distant east of Inverness.
In April 1746 Charles Edward Stuart, leader of the Jacobites, requisitioned Culloden House
using it as his headquarters in the days leading up to the Battle of Culloden.

With 33: The Highlands of Scotland as a backdrop.

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No. 29: (Background) Fort Augustus blown up by the rebels.
No. 24: (Foreground) Kerr and Cobham’s Dragoons marching through the broken wall of
Culwhiniac Enclosure to flank the rebels.
* The Dragoons rode through “breaches made by the Argyleshiremen” in the six foot high
 stone-built walls “at the rear of the Right flank of the Rebels.”

                 * Reference: “Culloden – The History and Archæology of the Last Clan Battle” Edited by Tony Pollard.


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Bombarded by cannon shot and mortar bombs, the Jacobite clans held back, waiting for the order to attack. When at last they moved forward, it was through driving rain, smoke, gunfire and grapeshot. Those that reached government lines fought ferociously; many others never reached their goal. This time the government troops were prepared for the dreaded Highland charge; under brutal gunfire and faced with deadly bayonets, the Jacobites were forced to retreat.


Hardly an hour had passed between the first shots and flight of the Prince’s army. 
Charles watched from safety as the Duke of Cumberland emerged victorious. 


News of the Jacobite defeat was brought to King George II by his son’s aid-de-camp, Lieutenant George Keppel.* The Government victory was celebrated in most towns in Southern Scotland, and throughout England church bells rang out and bonfires were lit.

Although by European standards Culloden was a short battle it was exceptionally bloodywith no quarter given by either side; but battle allegiances and the brutality 
of what followed  changed lives and life in the Highlands forever, families were divided, clan was set against clan!


 Days/dates vary as to the arrival of news of Cumberland’s victory in London.

Thursday the 24th of April is given, but the 24th was a Sunday and eight days seems a long time.
Thursday, being the 21st April seems much more likely.

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Inverness and its Castle, from where the Jacobite army marched, 
lies on the River Ness which runs into the Moray Firth an inlet of the North Sea.


The Kinloch Castle engraving was published by Henry Overton, 
The White Horse without Newgate, London, on the 30th of June 1746, some ten weeks after the battle. 
The Overton family were leading retailers and publishers of prints and maps in the late 
17th and 18th centuries in England. Henry was born in 1676 and took over the business
 from his father, John*, on the 17th of June 1707.
In turn his nephew, also Henry, ran the firm from 1751 until 1764 when it was sold to
 London newspaper proprietor, print and patent medicine seller forty-nine year old Cluer Dicey,
whose father had established “a huge distribution network in England for patent medicines”
as well as being a newspaper proprietor and print seller.


* John Overton (1640-1713) had been apprenticed to Thomas Gould in the Stationer’s Company 
and in 1663 bought the business and stock of leading print and map seller Peter Stent, 
over the next three decades building it into the most successful in London.

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For Comparison:   
A contemporary engraving by Luke Sullivan (1705-1771) in his depiction of 
The Battle of Culloden by Augustin Heckel (1690-1770)
with descriptive text.

A. Heckel, delin.                   The BATTLE of CULLODEN  April 16th 1746.                    L. S. sculpt.
                                                                                                                                 
This view of the Glorious Victory obtained over the Rebels shows His Majesties Army 
commanded by His Royal Highness the Duke of CUMBERLAND drawn up in three
Lines the Front consisting of Six Battallions of Foot, the Second of Five, 
the Third was a Body of Reserve, composed of Four. Part of the Highland Army is here
 represented as furiously attempting with Swords & Targets to break in upon the left of the 
Duke’s front line, where their Rashness met with its deserved chastisement from the fire 
and Bayonets of Barrels of Munro’s intrepid Regiments. The right wing of the Rebels
 being covered by a stone Wall. Kerr’s & Cobham’s Dragoons, under Hawley & Bland 
are describ’d as passing through a breech that has been made for them in it. 
To attack the rear of the Rebels w’ch put them into immediate confusion. 
Kingston’s Horse wheel’d off at the same time by the right of ye Kings Forces and
 falling on the left of the Rebels met our Dragoons in their Center on which began 
the total rout of these disturbances of the Publick Repose.  

Printed for & Sold by Thomas Bowles in St. Paul’s Churchyard and 
Jas Bowles at the Black Horse in Cornhill.

Published According to Act of Parliament May 1 1747.  

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The Will of King Louis XVI of France was recorded as “Item 1065: Engraving –
The Will of Louis XVI – Framed and Glazed in Hostel Bedroom 13 wardrobe.”
in the 1978 Inventory of Kinloch Castle Contents carried out by Phillips of Scotland
It is not individually recorded in later inventories.

Located on the floor in the Piper’s Room off the Great Hall and photographed in March 2006.

The paper print, mount and backing board all show stain damage consistent 
with being kept in a damp environment. 

The Will of Louis the Sixteenth
LATE  KING  OF  FRANCE
WRITTEN BY HIMSELF

THE LEFT COLUMN IS IN ENGLISH THE RIGHT COLUMN IN FRENCH.



The Will of Louis the Sixteenth

LATE  KING  OF  FRANCE

WRITTEN BY HIMSELF






Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesheres, (1721-1794) was a French statesman and a committed loyalist. He volunteered his services to defend King Louis, for which, in December 1793 he was arrested and imprisoned in the Prison Portes-Libres along with his daughter, son-in-law, grandchildren and his secretaries. In late April 1794 they were all guillotined.

François Denis Tronchet, (1726-1806) was a French advocate chosen by King Louis for his defence team, a difficult and dangerous task he performed “with ability and courage.”   
He died at the age of eighty and was interred in the Panthéon (mausoleum) in Paris.

Raymond Romain, Comte de Sèze, (1750-1828) was a French advocate who “gained a remarkable reputation for passion and persuasiveness.” Although imprisoned he managed to escape the guillotine and upon the return of the Royal House of France in April 1814 was made a peer, a judge and member of the Académie Française.   


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Louis XVI, last King of France and Navarre before the fall of the monarchy in the 
French Revolution, May 1789 - November 1799, son of King Louis XV, 1710-1774, 
was born on the 23rd of August 1754. He married fourteen year old Austrian archduchess

Marie-Antoinette in 1770 and they had four children. Only two survived to witness the outbreak of the French Revolution, Madame Royale, 
Marie Therese-Charlotte*, (1778-1851), 
and the Second Dauphin (1785-1795) who as an eight year old became Louis XVIII following the execution of his father. Following the overthrow of the monarchy in September 1792 and the creation of the First French Republic, the King's family including the Dauphin, aged seven and his sister, 
aged fourteen, were incarcerated in the 13th century Temple prison, 
built by the Knights Templar, where the Dauphin died three years later.
His sister was kept in solitary confinement for a year but eventually released.

Following his conviction by a narrow majority for treason, thirty-eight year old King Louis XVI of France was guillotined early in the morning of Moday the 21st of January 1793 
on the Place de la Révolution in Paris.
On the 16th of October, after also being convicted of treason, his wife, 
Marie Antoinette, was also executed.
Two years later, as a gesture of reconciliation after the turmoil of the Revolution, the Place de la Révolution was renamed the Place de la Concorde.