Tuesday, January 16, 2018


SALT  LAKE  CITY  AND  MORMONISM 
THE CHURCH OF LATTER DAY SAINTS IN THE 1890's.
Researched and written by George W. Randall.

George Bullough (later Sir George, Bt.) was twenty-two years old when in September 1892
he embarked on a thirty five month long world tour returning to Britain in August 1895.

A twenty volume photographic record of his travels is located in the library at
Kinloch Castle, Isle of Rum, Scotland, Bullough's Highland hunting lodge built 1897-1900.
Regrettably each picture has only the briefest title, sometimes no title and no date.
Fortunately Mr. Bullough purchased a copy of Charles Roscoe Savage's 
"Pictorial Reflex of Salt Lake City and Vicinity"* 
from which much detail can be attributed to each photograph



All the images in the albums have been re-photographed and researched by the author.
This Post contains a selection of those in 
Album XX - Salt Lake CityIf we assume the sequence of photographs reflects the 
actual travel  itinerary then Mr. Bullough visited Salt Lake City in early 1895.
(George W. Randall Archive) 

The original photographs purchased by Mr. Bullough
were produced by Mr. C. R. Savage, 12 and 14 Main Street, Salt Lake City 
and the Union Photo Engraving Company, 142 - 146 Union Square Avenue, San Francisco.

(* Assuming Mr. Bullough’s Souvenir copy of 
Savage’s Pictorial Reflex
was purchased at the time of his visit (early 1895)
I have used c.1893 as the most recent year in which
the photographs were most likely taken.)

LEFT: Photograph from page 14 of Album XX 
Salt Lake City depicting George Quayle Cannon, 
Wilford Woodruff, Joseph Fielding Smith   -   
      First Presidency Mormon Church.



SALT  LAKE CITY  AND  MORMONISM

Founded by a group of 143 men, three women and two children led by Brigham Young
on 24th July 1847 Salt Lake City, originally Great Salt Lake City,
was described in 1892 as the capital of the Utah Territory in the United States and
the metropolis of Mormonism. Utah, known as the Beehive State,
became the 45th American State on 4th January 1896.
Nine hundred and thirty miles east of the west coast city of San Francisco,
the city it is situated ten miles east of the 1,900 square mile Great Salt Lake
from which it takes its name with striking views of the Wasatch Mountains.
The population grew rapidly; by 1860 it numbered over 8,200.
The 1880 census recorded 20,768, 86% described as “coloured.”
By the mid-1890’s it was estimated at 60,000 and today approaches 200,000.

At the time of George Bullough’s visit in the early-1890’s Salt Lake City was linked
to the Union and Central Pacific Railroad at Ogden Junction, thirty-six miles south west.
The city “was laid out chessboard fashion with all the streets 137 feet wide and all blocks
40 rods square.” (A rod being 5½ yards, 40 rods being 220 yards or one-eighth of a mile.) “Freely planted shade and fruit trees lined the streets” while “on each side of every north and south street flowed a stream of pure water in an open channel. With the exception of some modern erections the houses (were) nearly all of sun-dried brick.
The largest public building, the $300,000* Mormon Tabernacle erected 1865-1867,
with its huge oval framed wooden dome capable of seating up to 7,000 persons,
contained the second largest pipe organ in America.

The Mormon Temple was built 1852 - 1892 at a cost of $10 million.*

Encyclopædia Britannica.

Bird’s-eye view of Salt Lake City, the Jordan River, Great Salt Lake and Wasatch Mountains.
The neatly laid out town is 4,226 feet above sea level.
(American Publishing Company)

 (George W. Randall Archive) 
                                                                                              
VIEW FROM THE MORMON TEMPLE  - 
EAST SIDE SALT LAKE CITY AND VALLEY c.1893.

The snow covered Wasatch mountain range, the highest peak reaching 11,500 feet,
form the backdrop to this view of Main Street, Templeton Hotel and the great Mormon store
and factory and other important buildings. Most of the land between the city 
and the mountains is dotted with homes and cultivated fields.

    (George W. Randall Archive) 

WEST SIDE SALT LAKE CITY AND VALLEY c.1893.

Taken from prospect Hill near Anderson's Tower this view shows City Creek,
the principal water supply for the city. A system of pipes and ditches distributes the water
for domestic and irrigation at a pressure of 170-lbs. per square inch.

    (George W. Randall Archive) 


VIEW SOUTH-EAST ACROSS SALT LAKE CITY TO WASATCH MOUNTAINS c.1893.

The breadth of the streets was determined by Mormon leader and engineer Brigham Young,
132 feet wall to wall being the usual width.
This was seen as making a conflagration impossible whilst minimising the spread of disease.
Notice the principal poles for telegraph, telephone and street railway are placed in the
middle of the street, whilst mountain water courses

down either side of most streets which are lined with trees.




    (George W. Randall Archive) 

CONSTRUCTION OF THE MORMON TABERNACLE.

The vast auditorium measures 150 x 250 x 80 feet high, and took thirty months to construct.
The first stone was laid on 5 April 1865 and dedicated on 6 October 1867, making it at the time the largest house for religious worship in the world.


    (George W. Randall Archive) 


CONSTRUCTION OF THE MORMON TABERNACLE 1865 - 1867.

The oval shaped building has no internal pillars and is supported solely by latticed trusses,
resting on forty-four paired stone pillars, each four band, ten foot deep truss being secured

with wood pegs and raw-hide ties.




    (George W. Randall Archive) 

COMPLETED TABERNACLE c.1893.


The grounds surrounding the Tabernacle, which are open daily, extend to ten acres and are

ornamented with lawns, shrubs, flowers and trees.

The original drinking fountain, shown above, incorporated the circled emblem of a beehive, 

a reminder of the original pioneers who after arriving in July 1847


survived the harsh conditions, were resourceful and industrious like the honey bee.








    (George W. Randall Archive) 

INTERIOR MORMON TABERNACLE c.1893.


Construction of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints Salt Lake City Tabernacle started on 26 July 1864, and held its first conference in the immense auditorium three years later. The balcony, added in 1870, completed the building.


Sometimes compared to an inverted boat’s hull, the Tabernacle is 250 feet long, 150 feet wide and eighty feet high. The interior space is clear; there are no intermediate supports for the roof.












    (George W. Randall Archive) 

THE GREAT ORGAN c.1893.

The original Tabernacle organ was built and installed by Joseph Ridges in 1867 and
 measured 33 feet deep, 30 feet wide and 48 feet high.
The bellows were inflated by air from four large water motors,
its compass comprising 67 stops and 2,648 pipes,
the most notable feature being the central portion and the huge golden pipes 
made of wood staves fashioned from Utah timber.
The organist at the time of George Bullough’s visit was Professor Joseph John Daynes.
(Daynes, born in Norwich, England, was only sixteen years old 
when he became organist in 1867 a position he held until 1900.)

The foreground seats accommodate the 400 strong regular choir,
but for great choral events this is increased to almost one thousand voices.
The choir at this time was under the direction of Professor Evan Stephens.
Almost all the hymns and anthems performed being original works composed
by prominent musicians and poets of the Mormon Church.

The four rows of seats below the choir are occupied by dignitaries and officials holding 
different grades of Priesthood in the Church. The upper is reserved for the first presidency, 
the second the twelve apostles, the third for the presidency of the stake, his counselors,
 expected speakers and others, and the fourth and lowest row is reserved for the lesser, 
or Aaronic Priesthood and originally for those who administered the sacrament.
Water is used instead of wine. 



    (George W. Randall Archive) 

TEMPLE BLOCK, SALT LAKE CITY  -  THE GREAT TEMPLE c.1893.

On the 6th of April 1852, amid solemn acclaim and with august ceremony, the foundation and
corner-stones of this all-important structure were laid by President Young and his compeers.
The Temple was completed in early 1892 and formally dedicated in 1893 by
the fourth President of the Church of Latter-day Saints, Wilford Woodruff,
exactly forty-one years to the day since the foundation stone was laid,
President Young having died on the 29th August 1877.
The Great Temple stands upon the east side of what is known as the Temple Block,
the very spot designated by President Young on the 24th of July 1847,
the day the pioneers arrived in the Great Salt Lake Valley.
The Temple is 186 feet long and 99 feet wide. The foundation is 10 feet thick, the walls being
drawn in story by story until they measured 5 feet thick at the top, 100 feet above the basement.
The outer walls and towers are of white granite, quarried twenty miles away,

initially hauled by teams of oxen, in later years by rail.



    (George W. Randall Archive) 

MORMON TEMPLE FROM SOUTH-WEST c.1893.


The architecture is symbolic throughout. Three towers adorn each end, the centre ones being the highest, the eastern three (right) being the higher than the west. The tallest rises 220 feet and is surmounted by the angelic figure of “Moroni”, 12½ feet high.
Made of gilded hammered copper Moroni is represented 
in the act of delivering his trumpet message of warning, 
yet of “Glad Tidings” to all the nations of the earth.  

The Salt Lake City souvenir, “Pictorial Reflex” published
 by C. R. Savage, located at the town's Art Bazaar in the early 1890’s records:  “The interior of the Temple is adapted to the Mormon view of its necessities and purposes. 
Some of its rooms are of astonishing grandeur and beauty,
others less ornate are yet characteristically chaste and attractive.
Hot water is used for heating and electric lights for illumination both inside and out.
Sanitary appliances are perfect, and two elevators meet the requirements of the initiated. Varied estimates have been made to the cost of this grand house. Probably three to four million dollars have been expended upon it. Much of this was, as is known, in kind and part in labour, although prior to completion much cash was donated for its appointments.
The whole, however, was voluntary, and being erected more for ordinances than for general worship, it will, of course, be understood than none but members of the Mormon Church, of good standing, 
are permitted to invade its seclusion … … ” 

Brigham Young was born into a farming family in Whittingham, Vermont on the 1st of  June 1801.
He worked as a blacksmith and carpenter and acquired knowledge as an engineer.
He became a Methodist in 1823 and married the following year. After reading the Book of Mormon, published in 1830 his interest grew to the point 
he joined this new church in 1832 travelling
 extensively as a missionary on its behalf.
Sadly, it was at this time Miriam, his wife, died. 
 Young joined a group of Mormons in establishing a community at Kirtland. Ohio, and in 1835 
was ordained a member of the original 
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, 
later becoming its president. 

In 1838 Young organised the exodus of a group of Mormons, or Latter Day Saints, from Missouri.

In early 1844, following disagreement between the charismatic Joseph Smith, founder and first president of the Mormons, and some of his closest associates, the dissenters formed a breakaway church charging Smith with perjury and polygamy. The first and only edition of the Nauvoo Expositor published their indictment and called for reform in the Mormon Church. 
Smith was portrayed as a religious fanatic.
The city council, supported by Smith, fearing a riot ordered destruction of the paper's press. 
This led to a "call to arms" by the editor of the Warsaw Signal
a longtime critic of Smith. Martial law was declared and a large militia was raised by the
 Governor, Thomas Ford. Initially fleeing, Smith and his brother Hyrum returned 

and surrendered in the belief they were to stand trial for inciting a riot. 
Once in custody the charged was increased to that of treason.  



ABOVE RIGHT: Brigham Young, 
2nd President of the Latter-day Saint Movement. 

LEFT: Etching depicting the mob attacking Carthage Jail and the assassination of Mormon leader, Joseph Smith. (Corbis / Wikipedia)


On the 27th June 1844 an armed mob stormed Carthage Jail, Illinois, where the Smiths were being held awaiting trial.  
Hyrum was shot in the face and died instantly. 
Standing by his cell window Joseph too was shot multiple times before, according to records, falling out the window, crying "Oh Lord my God!" 
He died shortly after hitting the ground and is interred at Nauvoo, Illinois.
Five men were charged with murder, 
all were subsequently acquitted.
At the time of his death Smith had attracted thousands of devoted followers, today membership is almost sixteen million worldwide.

A succession crisis followed the assassination of thirty-eight year old Joseph Smith which was eventually resolved with Brigham Young becoming second President three years later in 1847.




    (George W. Randall Archive) 

FROM PAGE 23 – C. R. SAVAGES PICTORIAL REFLEX OF SALT LAKE CITY
FIRST PRESIDENCY OF THE MORMON CHURCH 
PRESIDENTS OF THE MORMON CHURCH

Joseph Smith (Founder and First President) Born 1805 (Sharon, Vermont, USA) Assassinated 1844
Brigham Young (Second President) Born 1801 Whittingham, Vermont, USA) Died 1877
John Taylor (Third President) Born 1808 (Milnthorpe, England) Died 1887
George Q. Cannon Born 1827 (Isle of Man, England) Died 1901
Wilford Woodruff Born 1807 (Farmington, Connecticut, USA) Died 1898
Joseph F. Smith Born 1838 (Far West, Missouri, USA) Died 1918


The portraits represent the highest officials of the Mormon Church embracing President Wilford Woodruff and his Councilors, George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. Smith, the three constituting
the “First Presidency of the Church.”
President Wilford Woodruff was one of the pioneers who entered the valley on the
24th July 1847, and through hard work acquired a reputation for honesty and unfailing sincerity.
“He enjoyed the full confidence of his people, who desire that his life may be 
continue to his heart’s desire.”
His first councilor, George Quayle Cannon, born on the Isle of Man, England, on the
11th January 1827, was a man of great talent as a writer, a legislator, teacher of doctrines 
of the Mormon faith and man of strong characteur in all the walks of life.
Joseph Fielding Smith, a nephew of the prophet, Joseph Smith, was born on the 13th day 
of November 1838. He is described as being a man of “high spiritual nature, unflinching 
integrity, and of devotion, enjoying the confidence of his people to the fullest extent.

He takes the lead in all movements looking to the advancement of the members of the Church.”






























    (George W. Randall Archive) 

FROM PAGE 12 – C. R. SAVAGE’S PICTORIAL REFLEX OF SALT LAKE CITY

The Eagle Gate was the gateway leading into President Young’s private grounds and into 
City Creek Caňon (Canyon), at the time a toll road.

The Gardo House erected by Brigham Young who died shortly after completion was used as a parsonage by his successor, John Taylor. Under the Confiscation Act of Congress it passed into the hands of a receiver and in April 1892 became a branch of the Keeley Institute, a treatment centre for alcoholics and drug users. The building was demolished in 1921.

The Deseret News Building where the first newspaper west of the Missouri River was published on 15 June 1850. It was a most trusted paper, “honoured for its ability, honesty, fidelity and purity, such as befits and glorifies a truly family journal.”

The Portrait of Brigham Young was taken by Mr. Savage in 1876, was the last portrait of the Mormon President before he died the following year in Beehive House.


The Eagle Gate was erected in 1859 at the entrance to Brigham Young’s property at the mouth of City Creek Caňon and topped with a wooden eagle carved by Ralph Ramsay. Subsequently replaced by a bronze eagle, the original is displayed in Utah Pioneers Museum, Salt Lake City. 
































    (George W. Randall Archive) 

FROM PAGE 11  –  C. R. SAVAGES PICTORIAL REFLEX
DENOMINATIONAL CHURCHES IN SALT LAKE CITY

The Catholic Cathedral of St. Mary’s was the first non-Mormon church erected in Utah after its settlement by the Mormons. President Young donated $500 towards its erection.

St. Mark’s Episcopal Cathedral was erected in 1871 at a cost of $45,000. A transept was later added and a fine pipe organ.

The First Presbyterian Church was described as being a plain redwood rustic edifice with fine acoustic properties and a pleasant place in which to worship.

The Episcopal St. Paul’s Chapel was located on the corner of East Fourth South and Main Streets. A handsome stone building, neatly and artistically finished within and without.

The First Methodist Church is described as a roomy, handsome brick structure capable of seating eight hundred worshipers. It was built at a cost of $60,000.

The Swedish Lutheran Church considered “one of the neatest buildings for religious purposes in the city was built in 1885 at a cost of $10,000.”

The First Baptist Church on the corner of West Second Street and South Second West was described as being “a very pretty edifice.”

The Jewish Synagogue had been only recently finished when Mr. Savage published this edition of Pictorial Reflex. Described as an “interesting building, (it) is evidence of the cosmopolitan characteur of the population of Salt Lake.”

The First Congregational Church is described as being “a beautiful addition to the architectural attractions of Salt Lake City … (and contains) one of the most beautiful organs in the West. The elegant interior finish helps to make this last edition … the most notable of all.”




























    (George W. Randall Archive) 

FROM PAGE 29  –  C. R. SAVAGE’S PICTORIAL REFLEX
TYPES OF LOCAL INDIANS AND SOME OF THE SIOUX NATION

The Indians represented on this 
page are types of the races that still remained in the valleys in 
the early 1890’s. 
The accompanying text records: “Strange to say they (the Indians) are gradually dying off although uniformly treated with kindness in every Mormon home in Utah. 
The policy of Brigham Young 
was that it was better to feed 
than to fight them.”
The Indians apparently generally regard Mormons as their friends and very seldom was there any trouble with the settlers. Mormon Elders formed colonies of Indians with the view of getting them to understand and adopt the habits of the whites; the results were not very encouraging.

    (George W. Randall Archive) 

LEFT: BECK’S HOT SPRINGS  -  EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR  - 
WARM SPRINGS  BATH 
LEFT: BECK’S HOT SPRINGS  -  EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR  - 
WARM SPRINGS  BATH HOUSES

RIGHT: TOP – UTAH EXPOSITION BUILDING
MIDDLE – ST. MARY’S HOSPITAL CATHOLIC, COUNTY JAIL, 
DEAF AND DUMB INSTITUTE
BELOW – DESERET UNIVERSITY, SALT LAKE CITY THEATRE
(Size of photograph in Album 5½ x 4 inches) 



    (George W. Randall Archive) 

GARFIELD BEACH BATHING RESORT (U.P. Ry.) GREAT SALT LAKE

Rafters.                       Black Rock.                A Skiff.
The Pavilion.             Brine Shrimp.             The Mountains.
Black Rock.                Bath Houses.              Steamer Garfield.
The Beach.                 Floating.                     Looking East.

                 (Size of photograph in Album 5 x 3¾ inches) 
                                
    (George W. Randall Archive) 

Utah’s Best Crop
Gathered by C. R. Savage, Art Bazaar, Salt Lake City, Utah.

(Size if photograph in Album 3¾ x 5 inches)

FROM PAGE 18  –  C. R. SAVAGE’S PICTORIAL REFLEX
UTAH’S BEST CROP

A montage of over 250 children representing “Utah’s Best Crop, her children”.
According to the description of this image in Mr. Savage’s Pictorial Reflex it was often remarked “that the swarms of children seen in Mormon towns outnumbered the juvenile population of other localities where the adult members were more numerous.”
The title is attributed to George Q. Cannon, 4th President of the Mormon Church, who
when asked to name a motto to be used in the decoration of the Tabernacle,
 gave the following reply: “Utah’s best Crop, her children.” 

(Photographed during personal visit by the author October 2004)

Temple Block's North Visitor Centre displays a number of large murals
depicting biblical scenes - here John the Baptist is baptising Jesus.

****************************************

REFERENCES:

Family Search - Salt Lake City
Encyclopædia Britannica 9th (American) Edition 1892
Encyclopædia Britannica 11th Edition 1911
Savage's Pictorial Reflex - Salt Lake City and Vicinity c.1893
George W. Randall Research Archive 1992 - 2017
George Bullough World Tour Photograph Albums XIX and XX
United States Library of Congress
On Line Archives, California
Charles Roscoe Savage
Ogilvie’s Encyclopædia of Useful Information - 1896
Corbis
Wikipedia



POSTED 6 JUNE 2017  *  ADDITIONS 18 AUGUST 2017