Thursday, March 14, 2019

VOLCANO KRAKATAU  
NEW CALEDONIA,  BATAVIA,  SINGAPORE
  1892 - 1895 WORLD TOUR OF GEORGE BULLOUGH 
Written and illustrated by George W. Randall from first hand research.*

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL ADDED 21 MARCH 2019

Copyright  *  March 2019  *  George W. Randall Research and Photographic Archive 
The 20 Photograph Albums containing about 600 images collected during Bullough’s world tour.
Note: There are two labelled XIV and no XVIII. The somewhat thicker second XIV 

is labelled "Japan" and contains pictures of that country mostly in colour.


ALBUM XV  *   BLOG 81
Album XV continues George Bullough’s 1892-1895 World Tour with photographs
of some of New Caledonia capital’s residents and Saint Joseph’s Cathedral
built by transported French convict labour 1887 - 1897.
Images of Volcano Krakatoa and Batavia (today Jakarta, capital of Indonesia) follow.

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Researcher "Beware" - the importance of first-hand research.

* We start with photograph eight in Album XV identified as Palace Batavia.
This is certainly a palace, but it is not in Batavia, or indeed on the island of Java,
it is 6,850 miles away on the mid-Pacific Ocean island of Hawaii, this is -

IOLANI PALACE  -  SYMBOL AND EMOTIONAL HEART OF HAWAII.
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 8  *  FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches.
A description and detailed images from this photograph are included at the end of this Blog.

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Photographs bearing the circular embossed stamp:
PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA
 by Woodbury & Page, Java (Batavia), are identified.


The photographic business of Woodbury and Page, Batavia,
was founded by two Englishmen, 
Walter Bentley Woodbury and James Page
on the 5th of June 1857 and specialised in studio portraits.
Walter Woodbury was born in Manchester, England, 1834 where, from age fifteen he served as an apprentice in a patent office and to a firm of civil engineers. Intrigued by the rapid development of photography he constructed his own camera using a cigar box and eyeglass lenses. In 1852, aged eighteen, 
he travelled to the gold fields of Australia where he found work as an engineer and 
professional photographer. Here he met his future partner, expatriate British photographer, 
James Page, the pair emigrating to Java five years later.
Woodbury’s three brothers joined them during this time.
Walter Woodbury was an avid photographer and traveller. He visited the Dutch East Indies 
capturing a range of subjects including its people, landscapes and scenes of everyday life, 
his prolific work today providing valuable insight into Indonesia during the Colonial Era.
For an unknown reason James Page left the business in 1861, he died four years later. 
An inventor, in 1864 Woodbury patented his own developing technique, a photo-mechanical 
process called Woodburytype, for many years used for illustrating fine books with photographic portraits. Over the following two decades he took out a further thirty patents,
his peers dubbing him “the Einstein of photography.”

Due to ill-health Walter Woodbury returned to England in 1863.
Woodbury died in 1885 and is buried in Abney Park Cemetery, Stoke Newington,
one of London’s “Magnificent Seven Cemeteries.”
Woodbury & Page, Batavia, continued trading until 1908.
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 1   *   SIZE 8 x 6 inches.
Natives and Residents of Noumea. (New Caledonia)


Noumea is the capital of the Coral Sea island of New Caledonia, its native inhabitants, known as Kanaks, today make up forty per cent of the population of this collectivity 
of semi-autonomous islands annexed by France in 1853, 
and declared an overseas territory of France in 1956. 
In the referendum held in November 2018 New Caledonian's voted to remain part of France.
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 3   *   SIZE 8 x 6 inches.
Noumea.



ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 3   *   SIZE 8 x 6 inches.
French Church Noumea.


The Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Joseph was built of dressed stone between 1887 and 1897 
by mainly transported French convict labour to plans drawn by a former member of their 
number named Labulle as the seat of the Vicar Apostolic of Nouvelle-Cal├ędonie, who, 
in the year of its completion was fifty-five year old Bishop Alphonse-Hilarion Fraysse.

The cathedral was consecrated in 1893, four years prior to the completion of the bell towers,
by the Vicar Apostolic of Fiji, Monseigneur Julien Vidal.

The Latin Cross floor plan measures 184 feet in length with a transept of 118 feet. 
The nave comprises five bays with simple
expartite ogival vaults, with two straight bays and five polygonal bays for the choir. 
The transept is 118 feet wide on its 
south-west/north-east axis, height to 
the apex ceiling being 51 feet.
The apse is five sided, half a decagon.
The roof line carries a stone balustrade. 
The 82 foot high square twin towers are balustrated, a small stone pinnacle (spire) is placed in each of 
their four corners. The original plan included a single spire above 
each tower but this was rejected due to the frequency of cyclones.

The roof is corrugated metal, the towers, buttresses, windows 
and door surrounds being dressed stone. Other walls being rubble masonry 
are mortared with lime. The Red Kauri tree was used for the woodwork 
as it is straight grained, rot resistant with an exceptional strength-to-weight ratio making it ideal for the purpose. 
The Cathedral contains twenty-eight stained glass windows depicting 
saints and biblical figures.
VOLCANO KRAKATOA
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 4   *   SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches.

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE

Krakatoa (Krakatau) comprises a group of islands around a mostly submerged caldera 
(crater) in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra; 
it remains one of the world's most active volcanoes.
The protruding rim remnants of the historic 416 AD volcanic eruption, were to be seen
in the islands of Verlaten, Lang and Rakata, which came together to form the mass of
Krakatau Island in the process creating the volcanoes of Danan, 1,480 feet;
Perbuwatan, 400 feet; and Rakata, 2,700 feet.
The 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan and formed a massive caldera
as the ocean floor collapsed from which on the 29th of December 1927 following sporadic
seismic activity a new volcano appeared, Anak Krakatau, (Child of Krakatau),
which today has gained a height above sea level of 110 feet and remains very active.

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On Monday the 27
th of August 1883 the Indonesian island of Rakata, 
twenty-five miles 
off the west coast of Java, almost vanished when its volcano, Krakatau, 
violently erupted destroying 75% of the island and blasting eleven cubic miles* 
of material into the atmosphere, the finer particles, more than 10%, to a height estimated 
at 17 miles or 90,000 feet, through and above the jet stream to be carried  several times 
around the earth. This dramatically reduced the amount of sunlight reaching earth, 
disrupted weather patterns, and lowered global temperatures by 1.2 degrees C. (2.2F), 
it taking five years for temperatures to return to what was considered normal.
(* Approximately 46,000 million tons.)

Regarded as dormant since its last eruption in May 1680, by May to early August
1883 passing ships reported “moderate activity” during which a large earthquake
struck the area, and by the 20th of August Krakatau “was raging”,
explosions becoming more and more violent.
At the time the rim of the crater was approximately 1,000 metres or 3,280 feet
in diameter, its depth almost 170 feet, height 2,667 feet above sea level. 
With the volcanoes central vent blocked by a plug of solid lava pressure was rapidly 
increasing, until, at 10.02 am on Monday the 27th with the last of three morning eruptions
the volcano exploded, blowing away the northern two-thirds of the island.
As seawater entered the magmatic chambers the super heated steam built to such
pressure resulting in violent explosions hurling ash, cinders, pumice bombs
hundreds of feet into the atmosphere and the jet stream circling the earth.
The explosions were followed by the collapse of the unsupported volcanic
chambers forming an enormous underwater caldera three hundred feet deep.

The 1869 built, 735 grt. homeward bound three masted British sailing ship, Norham Castle,
was forty miles west of Rakata at the time, her captain recording in his log
the high pressure blast shattering the eardrums of over half his crew.

From the Log of Captain Sampson master of the 177 ft. long  SS Norham Castle.
The tsunami which followed created waves more than 100 feet high, sweeping away 160 coastal towns and villages and killing a recorded 36,417 people, estimates put the figure over 120,000.

Five Guys Facts Krakatau
Blast waves were so intense they damaged walls and broke windows one hundred 
miles from the eruption site. 
Numerous vessels in the area reported huge rafts of floating pumice ten feet 
thick, some crossing the Indian Ocean 
over the succeeding months. 
The decks of ships 160 miles away 
were still being covered with volcanic dust three days after cessation of activity, 
whilst in the immediate area of the dust 
cloud the explosion created total 
darkness for three days, and even fifty 
miles away darkness lasted more than 
twenty-four hours.
Depending on wind direction ash was 
reported falling on Singapore 520 miles to the north and the Cocos Islands over 700 miles south-west. Plant and animal life too was devastated, taking almost five years to before showing the first signs of recovering.



Much more information can be found on the internet.
Recommended site with videos:  Ronny Quireyns/VolcanoDiscovery


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ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 5   *   SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches.
Tanjong Priok  -  Port of Batavia.   

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE


The album photograph shows SS Swaerdecroon at Tanjong Priok, 
the port of Batavia, (North Jakarta), today the busiest and most modern Indonesian seaport.
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The 670 grt. SS Swaerdecroon was built by Int. Scheepsbouw Mij. De Maas, Slikkerveer,
Rotterdam, Holland in 1891 as a passenger/cargo ship and sold in 1906
to I. Amagasaki Kisenbu Gomei Kaisha, Osaka, Japan and renamed Kimigayo Maru.
The steel built Swaerdecroon was 185 feet in length with a breadth of 26½ feet
and depth of almost 17½ feet. Single screw developing 550 horse power
from a 3-cylinder triple expansion engine.
On the 23rd of May 1945 the ship struck a mine laid by a B-29 aircraft of the USAF
and sank west of the island of Hime Jima, Japan.
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 5   *   DETAIL FROM FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches.
Tanjong Priok  -  Port of Batavia.   

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE    

Named after Henricus Swaerdecroon, a naval cadet of the Vereenigd Oostindische Compagnie (V.O.C.), who by November 1718, aged of forty-eight, had risen to become Governor General
of the Dutch East Indies, a post he held until July 1725. He died three years later and
is buried in the graveyard of Batavia's Portuguese Church. He is remembered as the person
who imported to Batavia the coffee tree from Brazil and the silk worm from China.

Construction of new harbour facilities at Tanjong Priok commenced in 1877 
under Governor General Johan Wilhelm van Lansberge and were completed nine years later.
It was an essential and urgent improvement as annual trade, 
already 879,000 tons, was destined to double in the next twenty years.
Exports passing through the Batavia’s port included sago, rice, coffee, sugar, salt, oil,
tobacco, cloth, brass ware, teak and planking, along with  goods from Sumatra and
Borneo; destined for China, India, Europe and beyond. Imports included opium, drugs
and cloth from Bengal (India), tea, raw and finished silk goods, paper and
“innumerable smaller articles for Chinese settlers.”

Since the opening of the Suez Canal in November 1869, plus ever larger steamships
rapidly replacing sail, trade had increased exponentially. With the existing harbour only
able to accommodate vessels up to 500 tons, trading ships were moving to nearby Singapore.
The new outer harbour was formed by two breakwaters, each 6,072 feet long,
with an entrance width of 408 feet, the minimum depth being 27 feet.
The 24 foot deep inner harbour measured 3,609 by 573 feet with a 3,282 foot long quayside.
The harbour had a coal dock and was linked to the city of Batavia by road and rail.
Vessels of up to 40 tons could navigate two miles up the Jacarta River.

Today the port has twenty terminals for passengers and general cargo, plus three container
terminals with 76 berths. It employs over 18,000, handles over 1,500 vessels every month,
making it one of the largest such facilities in the world.

HOTEL DES INDES   -   BATAVIA
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 7   *   SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE    


Until it was demolished in 1971 to make way for a shopping mall, the Hotel des Indes
was amongst the oldest and most celebrated hotels in Asia offering accommodation to 
innumerable famous patrons for over one hundred and forty years.
Formerly named Hotel de Provence by its French owner, later Hotel Rotterdam and
Hotel Duta Indonesia, it was at the suggestion of Dutch author Eduard Douwes Dekker
in 1856 that it was finally named the “much more chic-sounding” Hotel des Indes.
It was another Dutch author patron, novelist and poet, Louis Marie-Anne Couperus,*
(1863-1923), who commissioned Walter Woodbury and James Page to photograph the hotel for an advertisement campaign.

(* Note: the date 1870 is attributed to this photograph of the hotel on some websites. 
If Couperus did indeed commission the firm of Woodbury and Page, 
he being only seven years old in that year, then a date late 1880’s would seem more realistic.) 

HOTEL DES INDES   -   BATAVIA
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 7   *   DETAIL FROM FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE    


The hotel was originally built in 1828 by the Dutch East Indies Government as a boarding
school for girls, however “it was soon abandoned due to lack of European females ...
its teachers leaving to get married.”


HOTEL DES INDES   -   BATAVIA
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 7   *   DETAIL FROM FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE 

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ARTESIAN WELL   -   BATAVIA
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 9   *   DETAIL FROM FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE    

Since demolished, the pictured Artesian Well was located in a park in the centre of Batavia,
formerly a field used as a parade ground and for military training it was
named Konisngplein by the ruling Dutch Government in 1818.
Throughout the 19th Century pollution of Batavia’s canal system plus an inadequate
supply of safe drinking water posed a major problem.
Some canals were filled in to make streets and higher ground used for development,
particularly around Konisngplein, which  by the mid-1800’s had become the most elite
location in Batavia as large houses began to dominate its borders.
Despite Batavia being located at the mouth of the largest of the areas thirteen rivers,
the Ciliwung, plus an abundance of rainfall, the residents still suffered an inadequate
supply of clean drinking water. The solution came between 1873 and 1877 with the
digging of seven artesian wells plus a number of shallow wells and reservoirs
primarily serving the European community.
By 1901 eleven artesian wells had been sunk “entirely meeting” Batavia’s drinking water needs, 
each well having its own distribution network. In 1923 a thirty-four mile long pipe system was 
added bringing fresh spring water to the rapidly growing city we know as Jakarta,
today its population fast approaching ten million.

Reference: Transforming Distressed Global Communities
Edited by Fritz Wagner, Riad Mahayni and Andreas G. Piller Published 2015


GOINOING JAHARI   -   BATAVIA
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 6  *  SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE   

Batavia was the Dutch colonial name for today’s Jakarta established in 1611 (1609 also given)
as the overseas cultural and administrative headquarters of the Dutch East India Company, headquartered in Amsterdam and founded in 1602. 
Laid out along Dutch principals a series of canals used for drainage and transportation, many stone lined, soon dissected the city which was to remain under Dutch control for over three centuries.

A late 19th Century description describes the town as being situated at the head of a 
capacious bay stretching inland over a swampy plain on both sides of the River Jacatra, 
the tree fringed canals and streets - many of the latter having a breadth of 30 to 60 metres -
 were laid out in a regular and straight grid pattern 
and contained many green and pleasant parks. 

GOINOING JAHARI   -   BATAVIA
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 6  *  DETAIL FROM FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE   


In Holland, much of which lies below sea level, canals serve principally to drain the land.
However, historic Batavia was growing on a low, flat, swampy alluvial plain through which thirteen rivers slowly flowed to the sea. Unlike canals in Holland which “regularly flush” their water, Batavia’s canals barely flowed due to irregular water flow from inland. 
The canals became shallow, stagnant and, as they were used for the disposal sewage, 
“smelled terrible” posing a severe risk of disease. 
Despite this, with minor modifications, the canals were retained throughout Dutch colonial 
rule which ended with independence for Indonesia on the 17th August 1945, 
since when they have been replaced with more successful and healthier alternatives.

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HOTEL DU CHEMIN DE FER - BUITENZORG
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 10   *  SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE 



Buitenzorg (today Bogor) lies thirty-six 
miles east of Batavia (Jakarta)
close to Mount Salak, a 5,500 foot volcano 
which last erupted in 1938.
In 1817 the colonial government founded  
the botanical gardens, which today
rank amongst the finest in the world.
At the time of George Bullough’s visit Buitenzorg was served by three well known hotels, the Hotel du Chemin de Fer, 
directly opposite the railway station; 
Hotel Bellvue and Hotel Dibbets.
Under the ownership of two Frenchmen, Mssrs. G. G. Breau and J. J. Leroux, the Hotel du Chemin de Fer opened in August 1872 its location offering stunning views of Mount Salak .
In 1920 the hotel was acquired by the State Railroad Company, Staatsspoorwegen.
In August 1925 hotel Chemin de Fer closed. 

HOTEL DU CHEMIN DE FER - BUITENZORG
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 10   *  DETAIL FROM FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE 

Hotel du Chemin de Fer  -  Railway Hotel. 

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KOERIPAN, NEAR BUITENZORG
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 15   *  SIZE 9 x 8 inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE 

Rice terraces in Central Java along the main road from Batavia to Buitenzorg.

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AVENUE IN THE GARDENS BUITENZORG
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 11  *  SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE 


Founded in 1817, at 820 feet above sea level with an average annual rainfall of 170 inches, Buitenzorg Botanical Gadens, (today the Bogor Botanic Gardens), is Indonesia’s foremost botanic garden with over 12,300 plant specimens.
World famous for its research, conservation and plant breeding programmes, 
(incorporating its own seed bank), it extends to 87 hectares (214 acres) 
of trees, plants, flowers, lawns and ponds.
PALACE BUITENZORG
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 12  *  SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE 

PALACE BUITENZORG
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 12  *  DETAIL FROM FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE

CHILD 28½ lbs. SITTING ON A VICTORIA REGINA LEAF 
IN THE GARDENS BUITENZORG
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 13  *  FULL SIZE 12 x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE

CHILD 28½ lbs. SITTING ON A VICTORIA REGINA LEAF 
IN THE GARDENS BUITENZORG
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 13  *  DETAIL FROM FULL SIZE 12 x 7½ inches

PHOTOGRAPHEEN • VAN • NED • INDIE • BATAVIA  -  WOODBURY AND PAGE

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DORIAN FRUIT - BATAVIA
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 14 *  DETAIL FROM FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches

Belonging to the genus, Durio, noted for its size growing to a length of twelve inches and weighing up to 7-lbs., its rind covered with prickly thorns, Dorian (durian) fruit is native to Indonesia.
Round or oblong in shape it is a seasonal fruit its colour varying from green to brown, the flesh pale yellow to red depending on the variety. 
It is used in Southeast Asia to flavour a wide range of foods 
from savoury dishes to sweet desserts.
The Dorian tree is an evergreen and can grow to a height of over 160 feet, 
(82 -164 being the range), depending on the species. 
The feathery flowers are large producing large amounts of nectar.
Bats are the principal pollinators along with giant honey bees and birds.
The taste of the fruit is variously described having a sweet fragrance to deep disgust, the latter being likened to rotten onions and raw sewage,
its lingering odour leading to the fruit being banned from some hotels, 
public transport and Singapore’s subway system.


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IOLANI  PALACE   -   KING STREET,  HONOLULU,  HAWAII
ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 8  *  FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches.
Incorrectly identified as "Batavia Palace" in Album XV.



The Iolani Palace, translates as the “Hawk of Heaven Palace”,
io, the first Hawaiian god, said to fly to commune with the gods.

The cornerstone of the palace was laid on the 31st of December 1879, the birthday of Queen Kapiolani, wife of King Kalakaua 
who commissioned construction at a cost of  US$343,595,
about £70,000 at the time, and completed in 1882.
The four gated entrances open to an extensive landscaped park.
The Kauikeaouli Gate off King Street was used for state occasions, the pathway, 
lined with royal palms, led to a broad staircased Corinthian columned front entrance. 
The palace underwent full restoration in 1978 costing $7 million, equivalent to 
US$27 million  or  £21,000,000 in 2019.

ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 8  *  DETAIL FROM FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches.
IOLANI  PALACE   -   HONOLULU,  HAWAII


ALBUM XV   *   IMAGE 8  *  DETAIL FROM FULL SIZE 9½ x 7½ inches.
IOLANI  PALACE   -   HONOLULU,  HAWAII


IOLANI PALACE IN THE LATE 1800’s.
Phil Mattes Post Card Shoppe MCMXCVI