Thursday, July 19, 2018

 Photographs from the albums of George Bullough, 
collected during his three year long world tour 1892-1895.


Time of visit to New Zealand November 1894.

BLOG  74

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Album XI   *   Image 29   *   
Detail from original size 8½ x 5¾ inches

Built of local Canterbury stone in Gothic Revival style from designs by Sir Gilbert Scott 
and Benjamin Woolfield Mountfort the corner stone was laid in December 1864 and the foundations completed the following year. At this point funding ran out.
 Questions were raised regards the best use of money. 
After considerable delay, building resumed in 1873 and at the time of 
Bullough and Mitchell’s visit in 1894 was still a work in progress. 

It took another ten years, with construction of the chancel and transepts, before the Cathedral was finished.
Native matai (black pine) and totara timber from the adjacent Banks Peninsula
were used for the decorated roof.
The tower stands 118 feet high, the spire a further 89 feet, a total height to the cross of 207 feet. The tower contained thirteen bells, the heaviest being almost two tons.

Access  to the belfry was gained via a 113 step stone stairway.

The Cathedral’s thirteen bells were cast in 1978 using bronze melted from the old
bells of Coventry’s Holy Trinity Church, to replace the original bells cast in 1881
by the John Taylor Bell Foundry at Loughborough, Leicestershire, England.
After hanging in the Bell Tower for thirty-three years they fell and were buried
in debris as the tower and part of the Cathedral itself collapsed during the
earthquake on 22nd of February 2011.
The bells, which together weigh almost six tons, were recovered and shipped
back to Taylor’s Foundry where they will be assessed for damage and,
hopefully, restored to their original condition.

Album XI   *   Image 29   *   
Detail from original size 8½ x 5¾ inches.

The double-fronted Cathedral Square Chambers of Allan Hopkins, 
Estate Agent, No. 8 Cathedral Square, Christchurch,
across from which (facing) the Bank of New Zealand.
Handsome cabs and carriages await customers in the foreground while a horse drawn
tram is about to pass in front of Allan Hopkins’ offices.

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Aerial photograph of Cathedral Square focusing in on the Cathedral
by K. E. Niven & Co., Wellington. Undated but no later than 1954
the year the visible trams were withdrawn.

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Researched and written by George W. Randall
and illustrated with selected photographs from archived copies of the
late 19th century photographs collected by George Bullough, b.1870 - d.1939,
(later Sir George, Baronet of the island of Rum, Scotland), 
during his three year-long world tour 1892-1895
in the library at his Highland home, Kinloch Castle, Scotland.
Recollections of the first half of the three year-long world tour of
George Bullough and his travelling companion Robert Mitchell were published 

in a series of twenty-eight articles by Mitchell and published in the 
Lancashire regional newspaper The Accrington Gazette in 1896.

We are halfway through Album XI  HOBART and NEW ZEALAND
Hobart, Dunedin and Taiaroa Head Royal Albatross Colony were covered in Blog 72
Queenstown, Lake Wakatipu and Lyttleton – the Sea Port of Christchurch Blog 73

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Album XI   *   Image 26   *   Size 8½ x 6 inches

Built in the Gothic Revival style from designs by Sir Gilbert Scott and Benjamin Woolfield
Mountfort. The Cathedral spire, from which the photograph was taken was 207 feet high.
Damage caused by the
earthquake of 1888.

Canterbury Plains on which the the city of Christchurch and its cathedral stand continues to suffer earthquake damage,

the most recent and most devastating in 2011.
In 1881, within barely four weeks after the Cathedral's consecration,

a stone was dislodged from the finial cap of the spire immediately below the terminal cross.

The earthquake of the 1st of September 1888 caused the top twenty-six feet of the spire to collapse. This is most likely the ’quake referred to in George Bullough’s photograph.

Another earthquake on the 16th of  November 1901 again
brought down the top half of the spire.

The earthquake on Christmas Day 1922 dislodged one of the stone crosses. But the quakes of 2010 and 2011 left the cathedral a ruin.
 It was the devastating 6.3 magnitude earthquake in February 2011, followed by further quakes in June and December 2011 that left the Cathedral so badly damaged it raised the question of demolition.  

Christ Church Cathedral after partial demolition – September 2012.

Finally in September 2017, after six years, the Anglican Church announced that Christchurch Cathedral will be rebuilt to its basic design and strengthened against future quakes.
The re-building will be much more resilient to future seismic activity and include 
weathered copper sheeting and an internal seismic damper.  
The work will take ten years and cost almost $94 million (£70 million).
At the same time heating and seating  will be improved. 

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Album XI   *   Image 26   *  Detail from original size 8½ x 6 inches

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The Wool Store premises of  F. C. Tabart,
Auctioneers and Wool Brokers, (above lower left) not only dealt 
in wool, but the importation and selling of native and imported sheep. 

The Australian Pastoralist’s Review of December 1897 reports that “during Christchurch Show Week Mr. F. C. Tabart  imported 
and sold a number of imported Tasmanian Shropshire ram hoggets,
two bred by by Mr. Burberry of Jericho sold for 20 and 12 guineas respectively, others by Mr. Steele, Forcett, sold for 17 guineas.”

Christchurch Show Day, the largest pastoral and agricultural 
event in New Zealand, originated as a celebration to mark the 
arrival of the first two clipper ships to the region of Canterbury on the 16th of December 1850,
 the Charlotte Jane and the Randolph.
In the 1950’s the date was changed to the second Friday after the first Tuesday of November. 
F. C. Tabert were also auctioneers of household effects - see their advertisement 
(left) from The Press Monday 23rd of March 1891

Album XI   *   Image 26   *  Detail from original size 8½ x 6 inches

Francis Christopher Tabart was born in London (England) in 1830; 
eight months later, his father having retired from the Royal Navy, 
the family emigrated to Tasmania where Francis was educated. 
Following the death of his father in 1855 Francis moved to Australia 
gaining employment as manager overseeing large sheep and cattle
 stations in the Riverina and Murray districts of Victoria. 
A keen and skilled rider, in his mid-twenties, he won the coveted 
Melbourne Grand National Steeplechase on a horse called, “Triton.”

In 1857 he married twenty-four year old Margaret Hignett. 
Returning to Tasmania he continued farming in his own right and 
as a station manager. Five years later he sold-up and moved to New Zealand where he entered into partnership in Nelson Province’s Amuri district with politician 
Sir Richard Dry and Mr. J. Meredith at their 85,000 acre Highfield Station. A heavy snowstorm in 1869 so decimated the flock the farm was sold and partnership dissolved.

Now in his fortieth year, having purchased the auctioneering business of Mark Sprott, 
Francis Tabart moved to the west coast town of Hokitika where he remained until 1877 
when he moved to Christchurch as partner the auctioneering and general 
merchanting business of Robert Wilkin & Co. 
In 1886 Mr. Wilkin died and Tabart formed the business of F. C. Tabart & Co., 
of which he remained head until his death in 1901 at the age of seventy-one.
 He is interred in Woolston Cemetery, Rutherford Street, Christchurch.

Francis Tabart was a highly respected and popular member of the Christchurch community
 and beyond. For a number of years, resuming his love of horses and riding, he was an
 honourary judge for the Canterbury Jockey Club. He left a widow, two sons and six daughters.
Reference: The Cyclopædia of New Zealand РCanterbury Provincial District.

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Album XI   *   Image 26   *  Detail from original size 8½ x 6 inches

Sign middle right in photograph reads:

New Zealand Farmers Cooperative Association of Canterbury Limited 
Agents for the Hornsby 
Reaper and Binder.

Established along Cashel Street, Christchurch 
in 1881 the business premises comprised a two 
and a three-story brick building incorporating space for several retailers, drapery, earthenware, grocery, perfumery, carpets, stationery, 
hardware saddlery, seeds, Manchester goods, indeed “almost everything from a needle to an anchor.”
The members of the Co-operative owned shares and thus provided the capital to operate the 
company.This provided the means and opportunity for them to realise the best possible return for 
their wool, grain, frozen meat, hides and skins for Australian and English markets as well 
as vast a range of retailed goods throughout New Zealand.
The success of the Association was such that by the mid-1890’s it had branches in Auckland (North Island, New Zealand) and Sydney (Australia) with an office in London (England).
The Co-op’s railway siding at South Belt, about fifteen miles north of Christchurch, stored a large stock of firewood and grades of coal. A hydraulic dumping plant under the supervision of the Association’s staff was available to members to unload their wool.

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G. Howland & Co., 
American Coach Factory
were wheelwrights and blacksmiths.

Their Thill-Coupling was a U.S. Patent device for connecting the thill, (or shaft of a cart or carriage), to the animal drawing it.

Sunday, July 8, 2018

 Queenstown * Lake Wakatipu * Lyttleton - Sea Port of Christchurch 

Time of visit to New Zealand November 1894.

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Blog 73

Researched and written by George W. Randall 
and illustrated with selected photographs from archived copies of the late 19th century photographs collected by George Bullough during
his three year-long world tour 1892-1895
in the library at  his Highland home, Kinloch Castle, Scotland.

We are halfway through Album XI  HOBART and NEW ZEALAND
 (Hobart, Dunedin and Taiaroa Head Royal Albatross Colony 
were covered in previous Blog - No. 72)

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Recollections of the first half of the three year-long world tour of
George Bullough and his travelling companion Robert Mitchell were published 
in a series of twenty-eight articles by Mitchell published in the Lancashire regional 
newspaper The Accrington Gazette in 1896.
The countries covered being Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Burmah (Myanmar), India, Australia 
and Southern Africa, including the major cities and industries - gold and diamonds - 
as well as the developing infrastructure of railways and communication within the latter.

These I  reproduced with explanatory notes in twenty-eight posts on my Blog 
and illustrated with a careful selection from my archive of  relevant  photographs 
from the first ten of the twenty albums at Bullough’s Highland home,
late Victorian Kinloch Castle, Isle of Rum, Scotland, built 1897-1900.
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Regrettably no further written reminiscences have been found, but the remaining ten albums, contain some three-hundred images of their visits to Tasmania (see BLOG 72),
 New Zealand, New Caledonia, Honolulu, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, San Francisco, Yosemite, Salt Lake City and Japan; the latter in colour.
Album XIII is devoted to Natives of Australia and South Africa.

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NOTE:  Unless stated otherwise, descriptions relate to matters as they were at the time.

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Album XI * Image 17 * Size 8 x 6 inches * Original photograph by Morris No. 205.

Queenstown was founded by thirty-six year old runholder (farmer), explorer and 
Statue of Queenstown
founder, William Rees
surveyor William Gilbert Rees in 1863.
Born in Pembrokeshire, South-west Wales, (Great Britain),
 in 1827, Rees emigrated to New South Wales (Australia)
 in 1852 where he took up sheep farming. 
Six years later he returned to England to marry his childhood sweetheart, twenty year old Frances Gilbert. 

In 1860 the couple moved to South Island, New Zealand, 
where Rees established a “high country farm” 
near the mouth of the Kawarau River, 
(which drains Lake Wakatipu), north-western Otago.

“I saw an open country, not perfectly level but broken by small hills and terraces, whilst a large lake or arm of a lake stretched away in the distance almost as far as the eye could see.”

In 1862 gold was discovered on the nearby Shotover River; 
the land, part of which included Rees’s homestead, 
was designated an official goldfield.  Rees was paid £10,000 compensation for the part of his farm that included Queenstown.
In anticipation of an influx of prospectors all requiring accommodation,
Rees converted his wool shed into a hotel, the Queen’s Arms.
In 1866 he entered into a partnership with Albert Eichardt who three years later became sole proprietor.  The cost of accommodation in 1898 was 10/- (50p or half a pound) per day,
The hotel exists today as Eichardt’s Hotel.

A keen cricketer, Rees played numerous first class matches, his forte being batsman.
His cousin was W. G. (William Gilbert) Grace, still considered
one of the greatest players ever of first-class cricket.
William Rees died at Blenheim, Marlborough, (in the north-east of New Zealand’s South Island), aged seventy-one on the 31st of October 1898.
The twenty-six mile long Rees River in Central Otago, which flows into upper Lake Wakatipu,
is named after him and a statue to his memory stands close to Rees Street in Queenstown.

Lake Wakatipu1,017 feet above sea level, covers an area of 113 square miles and has a 
maximum depth of 1,239 feet. Dog-leg in shape its overall length is almost 48 miles, 
with a maximum width three miles. Located at the southern end of South Islands Southern 
Alps the glacial lake is home to long-fin eel, salmon, brown and rainbow trout. These attract  
numerous species of birds, including, black teal, mallard, pied shag, and black billed gull.

The lake, noted for its scenic beauty, is surrounded by the jagged mountain peaks 
named The Remarkables” by Alexander Garvie, during his reconnaissance survey of the 
district in 1857. Viewing the sunset scene before him for the first time Garvie exclaimed, 
“Remarkable!” to describe the sight.
One of Otago’s earliest settlers Alexander Garvie arrived in New Zealand in the 1840’s when 
he was in his mid-twenties. A builder and carpenter by trade he later turned to surveying
 undertaking the Provincial Triangulation Survey in central Otago in 1857 when he 
established the base line on the 116 square mile Taieri Plains, south-west of Dunedin. 
Alexander Garvie died in 1859.

“Dog-leg” in shape, the 113 square mile lake is almost 48 miles in length with a maximum width of three miles. 

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Rising sharply along the south-eastern shore of the lake, the highest peak being 
Double Cone at 7,608 feet, the snow capped mountains create an impressive 
backdrop when viewed from Queenstown.
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Album XI * Image 17 * Detail from original 8 x 6 inch photograph by Morris No. 205.

John Richard Morris
Early New Zealand Photographers
The photographer John Richard Morris was born c.1854 
in Manchester, England, eldest of the five sons of John and Marina Morris. When John was just fifteen years
old the family emigrated to New Zealand on board the ship 
City of Dunedin” arriving at Port Chalmers on the 12th of January 1869. John along with three of his brothers became professional photographers, with numerous premises in Dunedin, principally Princes Street and George Street, 
run with the help managers under the 
direction of brother Guy, himself a successful press photographer. John Richard submitted his work to numerous international exhibitions, 
including Christchurch in 1884 and the Centennial International at Melbourne in 1888 when he won the Second Order of Merit.
He died at his home in George Street aged sixty-five on the 
29th of January, 1919 as a result of the influenza epidemic 
which swept New Zealand and is interred in Anderson’s Bay Cemetery.

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Map from: Tourist Guide to the Lakes, Mountains and Fiords of Otago and Southland 1898

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Album XI * Image 18 * Size 8 x 6 inches * Original photograph by Morris No. 272.

Surrounded by mountains in every direction Kinloch is located at the head of LakeWakatipu, 
twenty-eight miles due north of Queenstown.
"The water of the lake is the deepest blue in colour and is remarkable for its purity. 
The water temperature a few feet below the surface never falls below 52 degrees Fahrenheit or
rises above 54 degrees, however on the ledge which juts out from every beach, being shallower, 
the sun raises the temperature making bathing an enjoyable experience. A strange phenomenon 
is lack of buoyancy which makes swimming any distance a matter of difficulty."*
                                                                                       * Tourist Guide to the Lakes, Mountains and Fiords of Otago and Southland 1898

Map from: Tourist Guide to the Lakes, Mountains and Fiords of Otago and Southland 1898

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Album XI  *  Image 19  *  Size 8 x 5¾ inches  *  Morris No. 162

Mount Balloon stands 6,059 feet high in MacKinnon Pass an area of South Island’s
Milford Sound that boasts fifteen feet of rain every year.

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Album XI  *  Image 22  *  Size 8 x 5¾ inches  *  Morris No. 129

Surrounded by the finest of scenery Lake Ada in Milford Sound is 150 feet above sea level. 

From: Tourist Guide to the Lakes, Mountains and Fiords of Otago and Southland 1898.

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Album XI  *  Image 20  *  Size 8 x 5½ inches  *  Morris No. 174
S.S. Tarawera was built, launched and completed by William Denny & Brothers at
their Leven Yard, Dunbarton, Scotland in 1882 for the Union Steamship Company
of New Zealand, Ltd., Dunedin.
At 2,003 gross registered tons the cargo/passenger vessel was their first to 
exceed two thousand tons. 
Measuring 285 feet in length with a 
breadth of 36 feet and depth of almost 
23 feet;  Tarawera’s engine was a
253 nautical horse power C2cyl 
(38 and 68 x 43) in. by Denny & Company, driving a single screw with a service 
speed of twelve knots.
Passenger capacity was 124 first class; 
80 second class, with ninety portable cabins.
Tarawera “was the first British ship to be 
fitted with Edison’s incandescent electric light.”
The vessel was laid-up at Port Chalmers in 1921, stripped to a hulk in 1927 and eventually
 towed to Paterson Inlet, Stewart Island for use as a store ship for the Rosshavet Whaling Co. 
In 1933 S.S. Tarawera was moved to the island's
 Lowry Beach and deliberately grounded to form a breakwater.
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Milford Sound is the most northerly of the fiords along South Islands south-western coastline. The 1,280 foot deep inlet offers the most spectacular fiord scenery in the Southern Hemisphere with the all dominating 5,551 foot high Mitre Rock Peak at the head
and the nearby 500 foot sheer drop of Stirling Falls. 
In February 1883 Donald Sutherland, a native of Wick, Scotland, and London (England)
born Samuel H  Mereton, made the first attempt to ascend Mitre Rock.
They reached Mitre Ridge, 1.8 miles from the summit, but with bad weather
rapidly closing in were forced to abandon their climb.
It was not until the 13th of March 1911 that former sheep farmer, mountaineer,
explorer and airman, twenty-eight year old New Zealander

James Robert Dennistoun finally reached the topmost peak of Mitre Rock.

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Album XI    *    Image 24    *    Size 8½ x 6 inches 

Album XI    *    Image 24    *    Detail from original size 8½ x 6 inches 

An important sea-port for the frozen-meat and wool trade with Great Britain, Lyttleton 
was linked by rail with Christchurch seven miles distant. 
The rail line, and the particularly the opening of a tunnel in 1867, 
played a significant part in the development of Lyttleton as a port.
The sign on the building reads: New Zealand Shearing Company.

Album XI    *    Image 24    *    Detail from original size 8½ x 6 inches 

The roof sign reads: Anderson Engineering Works, which opened in Lyttleton in 1887.

Formerly called Port Cooper and Port Victoria, Lyttleton lies on the north-west
side of Banks Peninsula, on the east coast of South Island. Harbour works costing
 over £300,000 in the 1880’s made it a first-rate 110 acre commercial ocean port.
Protected by breakwaters, with a 450 x 82 x 23 foot deep foot graving dock,
the port has ample wharf accommodation fully serviced by the latest
loading, discharging and storing facilities.
Lyttleton is supplied with water, gas, electric light and post and telegraph offices.
At the time of our intrepid visitors, it also boasted a time observatory,
a jail for long-service prisoners, a state school, a sailor’s home and an orphanage.

Sheep farming in New Zealand was first established in the 1850’s with the export of wool
 the dominant commodity accounting for more than one third of export revenue.
With the invention of refrigeration the first consignment of 4,331 carcasses of frozen mutton, 598 of lamb and 22 of pig; numerous game plus 246 kegs of butter were loaded on-board the England bound, 400 passenger clipper Dunedin, a hold of which had been specially
fitted out with a compression freezing plant by Bell Coleman.

Built in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1874 for the Albion Line the 1,320 ton Dunedin was operated by the New Zealand and Australian Land Company (NZALC).
The ship sailed from Port Chalmers on the 15th of February 1882 and arrived in
London on the 24th of May – this first venture returned a profit of £4,700.

It was the beginning of the huge trade in frozen meat and dairy products
that remains a cornerstone of New Zealand’s economy.

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                                     BLOG 74  -  CHRISTCHURCH  -  FOLLOWS  SHORTLY

                                                                  A  WORK  IN  PROGRESS  ...  ...

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