Friday, May 22, 2020

STANDISH - the Maternal Pedigree of Lady Bullough in Her Own Hand


 STANDISH  -
the Maternal Pedigree of Lady Bullough in Her Own Hand 

PART  FOUR  OF  A  SERIES 

 Written by George W. Randall from first-hand research and illustrated 
from his personal photographic archive. 
EAST FAÇADE KINLOCH CASTLE
HIGHLAND HOME OF SIR GEORGE AND LADY BULLOUGH.


A three-fold wooden screen measuring 81 x 46½ inches overall containing twelve prints 
of important historical personages, each behind glass.
 The four Kinloch Castle Inventories in my possession not only indicate the screen has been 
moved many times but totally fail to recognise exactly what it is or represents.

It is the work of Lady Bullough,
all the individuals portrayed are maternally related and recorded
in her hand written pedigree in her journal, Somerford Manor.

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Some readers may be interested in exactly who each engraving portrays and the artist.
I have done my best to fulfill that wish as briefly as possible.
 Sadly brevity is not my strong point, and certainly not easy with these historical figures who lived in the most turbulent times in British history between 400 and 800 years ago.
    



From 1154 to 1399 the Plantagenets were the largest and most powerful family in Europe. 
The first Plantagenet king was Henry II, (b. 1133 – d. 1189), whose father, 
Count Geoffrey of Anjou, owned vast estates in the Province of Anjou, France. 
Henry’s wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, (daughter and heiress of William X of Aquitaine),
ruled even larger territory, thus making the Plantagenets 
not only the richest family in Europe but rulers of England and half of France.  
Altogether the House of Plantagenet ruled for 331 years.



The Screen includes the portraits of one King of England - Edward I; 
five Dukes of Norfolk;  one Earl of Surrey; four Earls of Arundel 
and Alathea Howard, Countess of Arundel - 
maternal granddaughter of “Bess of Hardwick.”*

Bess of Hardwick, née Elizabeth  Cavendish, was a shrewd business woman, 
known for her building projects – the most notable being Chatsworth, 
seat of the Dukes of Devonshire. 
At the time of her death in 1608, aged eighty-one, 
Bess was “one of the richest and most powerful women in the Kingdom.” 


Arms of the Duke of Norfolk.



The Howard Family ranks in the British peerage next to the Blood Royal.
Over the centuries it has had its honours and possessions forfeited to the
Crown and restored, whilst the blood of those members who irrecoverably fell 
out of favour stained the block of execution on Tower Hill, London.

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LADY ANNE MARY HOWARD, DAUGHTER OF THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS LADY ALATHEA TALBOT AND SIR THOMAS HOWARD, 21ST EARL OF ARUNDEL
HAS BEEN THE MOST CHALLENGING TO RESEARCH.
Did she ever exist? Did she marry and emigrate to the fledgling colony of Fairfield, Connecticut, America? How many children did she have? ... ... ...
See Portrait 9 - The most Illustrious and most excellent Lady, The Lady Alathea Talbot &c. Countefse of Arundel & Surry & the first Countefse of England.

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THOMAS HOWARD - EARL OF SURREY
 afterwards 2nd Duke of Norfolk 
 
born 1443 died 1524  -  Duke from 1514
From the Original in the Possession of John Thane

Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Surrey and 2nd Duke of Norfolk 
was the only son of Sir John Howard, First Duke of Norfolk by his wife Catherine, daughter of William, Lord Moleyns.
Born in 1443, educated at Thetford Grammar School, 
he was a warrior, statesman, and, in his long court career  
a supporter of King Edward IV.
After Edward IV’s death in April 1483 he was succeeded 
by his twelve year old son, also Edward, as King Edward V. 
The new king was never crowned; his eighty-one day reign
 being overshadowed by his uncle and Lord Protector, 
the Duke of Gloucester, who deposed him to reign as King Richard III from the 26th of June 1483; the last king of the House of York and last of the Plantagenet Dynasty. He was killed in battle at Bosworth Field,the decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses. 

Throughout Thomas Howard and his father John supported King Richard III’s claim to the throne, Thomas bore the Sword of State at the coronation and served as steward at the coronation banquet. Both were subsequently granted land by a grateful King Richard; John Howard was created Duke of Norfolk and Thomas, Earl of Surrey. In October 1483 they suppressed the rebellion by Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham against the King.
At the Battle of Bosworth Field, 22nd of August 1485, Thomas Howard was wounded 
and taken prisoner, his father, First Duke of Norfolk, was killed; Thomas inheriting the title.





John Thane, 1748-1818, was a leading print-seller, engraver, 
dealer in coins, medals, autographs and manuscripts 
with premises in Soho and Leicester Square, London. 

As an editor and publisher he printed “British Autobiography: 
a collection of the Facsimiles of the Handwriting of Royal and Illustrious Personages, with their Authentic Portraits” 1788-93,
 from which this portrait of Thomas Howard originates. 

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LONGSHANKS  -
KING EDWARD I OF ENGLAND
Born 1239 - Died 1307    *    Reigned 1272 - 1307

CO : PICTAUIÆ ET ANDIGAVIÆ : DN9 HIBERNIÆ EDWARDUS PRIMUS ANGLIÆ 
REX / DUX AQUITANIÆ

"The noble and Victorious Prince EDWARD the first surnamed Longshanks. King of England, 
Duke of Aquitaine, Earl of Poictiers and Anjou; 
Lo(rd) of Ireland etc.
He conquered Scotland and brought from thence the Marble Chair. He subdued and overcame Llewelyn, Prince of Wales and made his sonne Edward Prince thereof. He died at the age of 68 yeares 1307 after he had reigned
34 years 8 months.  Buried at Westminster."  

A 17th century oval bust engraving of Prince Edward,
from 1461 aged nineteen, King Edward I of England 
by Renold Elstrack (1570 - c.1630) from 
The Historie and Lives of Twentie Kings”
 by William Martyn (1562-1617) Recorder of Exeter,
printed 1615 by W. Stansey for Henrie Featherstone 1616.

Prince Edward was born in June 1239 and named Edward in honour of Edward the Confessor. He was the first son of King Henry III and Queen Eleanor of Provence, 
grandson of King John of England and great grandson of King Henry II of England.
Aged fifteen Edward married nine year old Eleanor of Castile daughter of 
King Ferdinand III of Castile in an arranged marriage.

King Edward I, nicknamed “Longshanks” due to his great height, reigned from 
1272-1307, during which he pursued an aggressive foreign policy, consolidated territory,
 made great strides in reforming government and reasserted the royal prerogative.
Edward died in July 1307 aged sixty-eight and was interred in Westminster Abbey
 in a plain grey marble tomb.



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Thomas Howard, Third Duke of Norfolk
From the original of Holbein in the Collection of 
His Grace The Duke of Norfolk

Size of print: 8 x 5 inches.

Drawn by William Derby
English portraitist, miniature painter and copyist.
Born January 1786 – Died January 1847

Engraved with permission by T. A. Dean

Thomas Anthony Dean,
English line and stipple engraver.
Born 1801  -  Died 1860

Thomas Howard was born on the 10th of March 1473,
 the first son of the Second Duke of Norfolk 
(also called Thomas) and his wife, Elizabeth Tilney. 
In 1484, at the age of eleven,  he was introduced to 
the Tudor Court of King Richard III and betrothed to nine year old Anne Plantagenet, fifth daughter of King Edward IV and niece of King Richard III; 
they married on the 10th of February 1495 in Westminster Abbey. 
All of the couple’s five children, three sons and two daughters, died young, 
the eldest at the age of eleven.  Anne suffered poor health and died of 
consumption in November 1511 aged thirty-seven.


In January 1512 Thomas married fifteen year old Lady Elizabeth Stafford, daughter of Edward Stafford, Third Duke of Buckingham who was executed in May 1521 for treason,
and his wife Eleanor Percy daughter of the 4th Earl of Northumberland. They had one daughter, Mary, and two sons, Thomas, 1st Viscount of Bindon and Henry, Earl of Surrey,
born 1517, (subject of the next portrait), first cousin of both Queen Anne Boleyn and Queen Catherine Howard, respectively second and fifth wives of King Henry VIII,
the two of his six wives the King had executed.
As Henry VIII’s Lord Treasurer,
the Duke was a wise and loyal servant to the King for many years.




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Henry Howard

Earl of Surrey

From the Original in the Collection of
His Grace the Duke of Norfolk 

Size of screen print 8 x 5 inches 

Published by Harding & Lepard 1 June 1828.
Pall Mall East, London. 

Drawn by William Derby (1786-1847) English portraitist, miniature painter and copyist and stipple-engraved with Permission by British miniaturist and engraver Thomas Anthony Dean (1801-1860)


ANNO  DŇI  1546 ÆTATIS  SVE 29 
Translation: Aged 29 in 1546”.

Descended from kings on both sides of his family tree, and one of the founders of English Renaissance poetry, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was born in the village of Hunsdon, Hertfordshire c.1518, eldest son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk and his duchess, formerly Lady Elizabeth Stafford. He was brought up with at Windsor Castle with King Henry VIII’s illegitimate son, Henry FitzRoy, later Duke of Richmond, born June 1519.
Henry was created Earl of Surrey following the death of his paternal grandfather, 
the second Duke of Norfolk, in May 1524.



On the 13th of February 1532 Henry was “contracted in marriage” to  the Earl of Oxford’s daughter, Lady Frances de Vere, both were aged fifteen.
Later in 1532, as a serving officer in King Henry VIII’s army and following  the army tradition of his father and grandfather, Henry accompanied the King to France along with his first cousin Queen Anne Boleyn,  and his friend thirteen year old Duke of Richmond
“in a glittering train to celebrate meeting on the French coast with Francis the first.”

Henry remained in France for over twelve months, a member of King Francis I’s court.

In March 1536, Thomas, the first of Henry and Lady Frances’s five children was born.
Thomas Howard became 4th Duke of Norfolk upon the death of his grandfather, 
the 3rd Duke, in 1554. On the 23rd of July 1536, one month after his seventeenth birthday, Henry’s childhood friend, companion and brother-in-law, (he had married Henry’s sister, 
Lady Mary Howard, on the 28th of November 1533), the Duke of Richmond, 
died of tuberculosis.

On the 23rd of April 1542 Henry was invested with the Most Noble Order of the Garter,
 the most senior order of knighthood.


Despite being a prominent figure in Court life, Henry Howard had a “reckless temper 
which involved him in many quarrels.”

“In July 1542 he was imprisoned in London’s notorious Fleet Jail on the ground of a desperate quarrel with a private gentleman and remained closely confined for a number of weeks … before being bound over to keep the peace in the sum of 10,000 marks.”

He and his father had scant regard for rising stars such as Lord Great Chamberlain, Thomas Cromwell or Lord High Treasurer and Protector, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset.

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William Derby's engraving is believed to be after the original by the Italian Renaissance artist, Alessandro Bonvicino, 1498-1554.

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By the beginning of January 1547 King Henry was consumed by paranoia. Obese and in great pain from an ulcerated leg which refused to heal, he became convinced the Howards, father and son, were planning to usurp the crown from his son, King Edward VI. Court intrigue had increased to the level where it was suggested Mary FitzRoy - widow of King Henry’s illegitimate son - should “seduce the aged King and become his mistress.”
The Duchess “was outraged … at such villainy.” 
Not surprisingly she and her brother fell out. 
The saying: ‘Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned’ was proved when Mary subsequently testified against her brother and by implication
 their father the Duke, leading to their arrest and trial for treason. 
Found guilty Henry Howard was executed on the 19th of January. 



His father survived because King Henry died aged fifty-five on the 28th of January
 before he could sign the death warrant. However, his title and lands forfeit, 
Thomas, 3rd Duke of Norfolk remained incarcerated in the Tower of London 
throughout the seven year reign of King Edward being finally released 
and pardoned by Edward’s successor, the Catholic Queen Mary, wife of King Phillip II 
of Spain and Sardinia, following her accession in July 1553. 
Thomas Howard died in the Norfolk village of Kenninghall on the 25th of August 1554 
to be succeeded by eighteen year old Thomas Howard, (son of Henry, Earl of Surrey),
 as 4th Duke of Norfolk, second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I.

Reference: “Portraits of Illustrious Personages of Great Britain … ” by Edmund Lodge. First Edition 1814.

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John Howard Duke of Norfolk
From a Drawing by Virtue, in the Collection of Richd.Bull Esqrr. taken from the
original Painting on Glafs now preferved in the Royal Society.

John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, 
was born c.1425 
in the Sussex village of Stoke Nayland,
son of Sir Robert Howard and his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Thomas Mowbray.

He was a direct descendant of English royalty on 
both sides of his family, maternally through 
King Edward I, (1239-1307, also known as Longshanks) and paternally from Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, 
(1209-1272), second son of King John and brother of 
King Henry III, making him the premier Duke and 
heir to the title Earl Marshall of England.

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In 1455, during the reign of King Henry VI (Note 1) John Howard was elected Member of Parliament for Norfolk. An unwavering Yorkist, he was knighted at the one day Battle of Towton (Note 2) on the 29th March 1461  by King Edward IV, (reigned 4 March 1461- April 1483), and appointed Treasurer of the Royal Household from 1467 to 1474.  In August 1475 he accompanied King Edward to France to meet King Louis XI - at his request - in order "to swear to observe their respective engagements to complete the (peace) Treaty of Pecquigny" following an invasion of France by Edward in alliance with the provinces of Brittany and Burgundy subject to five specific terms, including a seven year truce, the King of France to pay annually to the King of England 50,000 crowns and Prince Charles, son of Louis XI to marry the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward IV. 

John Howard carried the royal banner at King Edward's funeral. 
He supported Richard III's eleven week usurpation of the throne and coup d'etat  from 
Edward IV's twelve year old son King Edward V (Note 3) leading to Richard, 
son of Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville daughter of the Earl of Westmoreland, 
being crowned King Richard III by the Archbishop of Canterbury
 in Westminster Abbey on the 6th of July 1483. Howard bore the crown and his eldest son, the Earl of Surrey, carried the sword of state at the ceremony. 
Howard's unwavering alliance with the new King resulted him being created 
First Duke of Norfolk, third creation, (Note 4)
Earl Marshal and Lord Admiral of Englandon the 28th of June 1483.

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George Vertue, 1684-1756, was a London born English engraver and antiquary. 
For seven years, from the age of thirteen, he was apprenticed to Flemish heraldic engraver 
Michael Vandergucht who moved to Britain in 1688. During this period Virtue produced several hundred portraits and in 1711 was one of the first members of Sir Godfrey Kneller’s London Academy of Painting, in 1717 he was appointed engraver to the Society of Antiquaries. 
Vertue’s engraving of Dr. John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury, after Kneller’s original, commissioned by British Lord Chancellor, Baron John Somers, establish his reputation as an engraver. Vertue died in July 1756 and is interred in Westminster Abbey.
Richard Bull was born c.1725, son of wealthy businessman Sir John Bull and his wife
Elizabeth (née Turner). He was educated at Westminster School and studied law at Lincoln’s Inn – cut short by the death of his father – and from 1743 Trinity Hall Cambridge.
From 1756 to 1780 he was a member of the House of Commons for Newport, Cornwall.
He moved to the Isle of Wight and lived at Northcourt Manor, Shorwell.
 Here he built his collection of books and prints, “his diligent search
(for which) preserved many that would otherwise have been lost.”
His library contained several hundred illustrated volumes, many printed before 1700.
*

The disappearance and supposed murder on King Richard’s orders of the two young princes, Edward and Richard in the Tower of London, essential to Richard's intent to become king, increased his unpopularity. By September 1483 rebellion had broken out in 
the name of the House of Lancaster claimant, Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond,
the future King Henry VII and father of King Henry VIII.
A series of confrontations during October 1483 were soon suppressed, their leader, 
Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, a former supporter of the King, was quickly caught, tried for treason and beheaded on the 2nd November, his honours forfeited.

On the 7th of August 1485 the exiled Earl of Richmond landed his invasion force at 
Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, Wales, to be joined by those of seven year old Edward Stafford, the executed second duke’s eldest son. 
Edward was awarded Knight of the Order of the Bath and re-instated as  3rd Duke of Buckingham on the 29th of October 1485 
and attended the coronation of King Henry VII the following day.
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Signature of John Howard, First Duke of Norfolk, 1425-1485. 
*
But dissatisfaction with Richard’s rule was widespread and growing.
As more and more of nobles entrenched themselves in the Yorkist or Lancastrian camps
a final battle in the War of the Roses became inevitable.
It came on the 22nd August 1485 at Bosworth Field, Leicestershire,
at about 8 am,  … it was over by mid-day. 

From British Autography by J. Thane, Rupert Street, Haymarket, London 1793.

At first neither side could gain the upper-hand. Eventually, John Duke of Norfolk - Commander of the vanguard -  lost his face guard in a skirmish with the Earl of Oxford. Shortly thereafter he was killed in front of the King when an arrow struck him
in the face. History records this has a “demoralising effect on the King” and possibly
was the spur for his attempt to turn the tide of battle in his favour and avenge 
the death of his friend.
Mounted on “his favourite horse, White Surrey”, he unwisely led a cavalry charge across
boggy ground directly against Henry Tudor. Stranded, cut off and
surrounded he was killed by a blow to the head by a spiked halberd.  


“England hath long been mad, and scarr'd herself;
The brother blindly shed the brother's blood,
The father rashly slaughter'd his own son,
The son, compell'd, been butcher to the sire; 
All this divided York and Lancaster ... ... ”

(William Shakespeare, Richard III (1591), V.v. Henry Tudor, the victor of Bosworth Field, declares an end to the War of the Roses.) 

Note 1  Reign of King Henry VI 1422- 4 March 1461, deposed and reinstated 31 October 1470 deposed again 
11 April 1471 and stabbed to death in the Tower of London the following month. Succeeded on 11 April 1471
 by King Edward IV, son of Richard Duke of York. Period thirty year long War of the Roses, House of Lancaster
 versus House of York.   

Note 2  Fought in a snowstorm on Palm Sunday, the Battle of Towton, Yorkshire, during the Wars of the Roses,
(the red rose of the House of Yorkshire versus the white rose of the House of Lancashire), is described as 
“probably the bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil.” It brought about a change of monarch, 
the Yorkist Edward IV displacing King Henry VI on the English throne.  

Note 3  Edward and his younger brother ten year old Richard of Shrewsbury (Duke of York), were reputedly murdered on the orders of their uncle, King Richard III, last king of the House of York and last of the Plantagenet Dynasty. Two years later King Richard was killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the decisive battle that ended the thirty year long series of battles for control of the English throne known as the Wars of the Roses, May 1455 - August 1485; he was thirty-two years old.  

Note 4  The first creation having become extinct on the death of John de Mowbray, 4th Duke in 1476, with no heir. 
The second creation being made invalid “by Richard's illegitiminisation in June 1483 of Edward IV's second son, 
Richard of York.”

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Henry Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel
From the original of Holbein in the Collection of
The Most Noble The Marquis of Bath
Engraved by H. Robinson after Holbein’s original.
London. Published Decr. 1, 1830 by Harding & Lepard, Pall Mall East.


Henry Fitzalan was born on the 23rd of April 1512 son of William Fitzalan, 17th Earl of Arundel and his second wife, Lady Anne (née Percy) daughter of Henry Percy,
4th Earl of Northumberland.

As his father’s only son and heir Henry was styled 18th Earl of Arundel  -  the title having being recreated in  1289.
In 1537, aged fifteen, he became a page at the court of thirty-six year old King Henry VIII who was his godfather.  He assumed the earldom on his father’s death in 1544 and was made Knight of the Garter, the most senior order of knighthood. 

In 1545 he married Katharine Grey, daughter of Thomas Grey 2nd Marquis of Dorset, and they had three children, 
Jane, Henry (died young) and Mary who married 
Thomas 4th Duke of Norfolk.

In 1546 King Henry appointed Fitzalan Lord Chamberlain,
the most senior office of the Royal Household.
Following Henry’s death in January 1547 Fitzalan was Lord High Constable at the Coronation of Henry’s nine year old son,
King Edward VI, and a member of the twelve man council appointed by his father to govern during his minority 
under Lord Protector Edward Seymour, 
1st Duke of Somerset and Edward’s uncle.
King Edward died aged fifteen in July 1553 after seventy seven months on the throne, he was the first English monarch 
to be raised as a Protestant.

His power and influence greatly reduced Fitzalan vigorously advocated Seymour’s removal. Within two years of King Henry’s death, October 1549, Somerset was finally deposed and sent to the Tower of London.

A new governing group was formed to care for now eleven year old King Edward  led by Henry Fitzalan (Earl of Arundel), Thomas Wriothesley (1st Earl of Southampton) and John Dudley (Earl of Warwick). Within six months Dudley removed Fitzalan and Wriothesley as they were considered “religious conservatives.” Fitzalan was placed under house arrest on a charge of embezzlement. Although cleared feelings of injustice were such that he joined forces with the man he helped depose, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, who had been released from the Tower and re-instated to the Privy Council.
Somerset was arrested again in 1551 on a charge of treason; he was executed on the 22nd January 1552 after being found guilty of “seeking to bring about a change of government.”
Accused of being implicated alongside Somerset, Henry Fitzalan arrested and imprisoned for a year. Released in May 1553 after payment of a large fine he again assumed his role on the Council caring for King Edward. 

By the third week in June 1553, 
(two weeks before he died on the 6th July), 
Edward was so ill it was necessary for 
letters patent to be signed by the 
Council conferring succession to Lady Jane Grey, the sixteen year old daughter 
of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk.
Wife of eighteen year old Lord Guildford Dudley, Lady Jane was proclaimed Queen
 of England and Ireland on the 
10th of July 1553. 

Within days of King Edward’s death, Fitzalan, 
in a volte-face,  took the Great Seal of State and rode to Framlingham Castle, Surrey, 
where thirty-seven year old Mary Tudor (first child and daughter of King Henry VIII by 
Catherine of Aragon), was residing.
Shortly thereafter he returned to London with Mary.
Persuaded by the hidden agendas of the rich and powerful, led by Fitzalan, 
the Privy Council changed sides and nine days later, the 19th of July, 
proclaimed Mary as queen. 

(During her five year reign, Bloody Mary, as she became known by her 
Protestant opponents, had over three hundred religious dissenters burnt at the stake.)
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Signature of Henry Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, 1512-1580.
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Jane along with her husband, his two brothers and former Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, were held in the Tower of London on a charge of treason.
It was Jane’s father, 1st Duke of Suffolk, who by his involvement with Wyatt’s Rebellion, a popular uprising against Queen Mary’s intention to marry King Philip II of Spain that sealed his daughter’s ultimate fate.
Mary increasingly viewed Jane as the ever present threat.
Jane and her co-conspirators were tried by a special commission in mid-November 1553 chaired by the Lord Mayor of London. All were found guilty and sentenced to death. Jane’s initial fate for “having treacherously assumed the title and the power of monarch evidenced by a number of documents she had signed as Jane the Queene”,
was to “be burned alive, (the traditional punishment for women guilty of treason)
or beheaded as the Queen pleases.”
On the 12th of February 1554, Jane, England’s Nine Day Queen, and her husband were beheaded in the precincts of the Tower of London.
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Arundel Castle remains the seat of the Dukes and Earls of Arundel.
*

Under Queen Mary Fitzalan held several high offices, including that of Lord Steward of the Royal Household. But he had enemies. One such proposed a reorganisation of the royal household. As Fitzalan, according to his biographer, “did not prefer his vain glorye nor profit before his honour and credit”, he resigned.
Queen Mary died on the 17th of November 1558 and was succeeded by Queen Elizabeth I, daughter of King Henry VII and Queen Anne Boleyn his second wife.


The twenty-five year old queen was very much dependent on a group of trusted advisors led by William Cecil and which included the now re-instated Fitzalan.
Brought up as a Protestant, (recall King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church when Pope Clement VII refused to allow his divorce from Catherine of Aragon),  Queen Elizabeth’s first action was to firmly establish the English Protestant Church - the Church of England - of which she became supreme governor.

A devout Roman Catholic Fitzalan became involved in numerous intrigues to replace the Protestant Queen. 
He seems to have been a remarkable survivor! Despite his arrest on suspicion of involvement in the Ridolfi Plot of 1571 to assassinate the queen and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots, he was again released following the execution of co-conspirator, thirty-six year old Thomas Howard 4th Duke of Norfolk in June 1572.
(Thomas Howard was married to 
Fitzalan’s daughter Mary.)
By this time Fitzalan was sixty years old, some twenty-five years more than life expectancy even for a nobleman in the late-16th century.
The Earl spent the remaining eight years 
of his life in retirement.
Upon his death in February 1580 the title passed through Duchess Mary to her son
Philip Howard, born 28th June 1557.


(Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk and Phillip Howard, Earl of Arundel are the next two portraits depicted on the three-fold screen.)

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-  THOMAS HOWARD  -
4th DUKE OF NORFOLK

Born 1536  -  Executed 1572
Jacobus Houbraken, sculpt. August 1735     
St. Anthonis More, pinx. 1562


In the Collection of Mr. Richardson.


Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, son of Henry Howard, Earl Surrey and his wife, Frances de Vere, daughter of John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford, was born at Kenninghall, Norfolk, on the 10th of March 1536, he became 4th Duke in 1554 upon the death of his grandfather, the 3rd Duke, his father having been executed for high treason against Queen Mary I six years previously, pre-deceasing his father.


At the time Kenninghall Manor with its 700 acres of parkland was the seat of the mighty Howard family,an estate granted to the second Duke of Norfolk, also Thomas Howard,
 by King Henry VIII.
On the 16th of January 1572 the Duke was brought to trial on a charge of high treason.  
Found guilty, his property confiscated, he was executed on Tower Hill on the 2nd of June.

Kenninghall was demolished in 1603.

The work by Dutch artist Jacobus Houbraken, (1698-1780), is after the original painting
 by Sir Anthonis More, (1519-1577). The decorated ornamental surround, 
by French engraver Hubert-François Bourguignon Gravelot, (1699-1773), 
sits above and around a weeping cherub his left hand resting on a duke’s coronet, 
his right hand wiping a tear from his right eye with a handkerchief. 
A halberd, two handed axe, lies by the cherub’s outstretched right leg. 
The Duke suffered a dramatic fall from grace in 1571 and was executed for treason in 1572, the original artist, Anthonis More, died five years later.
Overall dimensions of the print as displayed: 19 x 16½ inches. 

Despite being heir of a family with strong Roman Catholic leanings Thomas Howard was was brought up a Protestant by the Protestant martyrologist, John Foxe (1519-1587).

Foxe’s books and teachings told of Christian martyrs throughout Western history, particularly the persecutions endured by English Protestants from the 14th century to the end of the five year reign of Queen Mary I, 1553-1558.  

Howard, a second cousin to Queen Marys successor, Protestant Queen Elizabeth I, 
was twenty-two years old when King Henry VIII’s twenty-five year old daughter 
ascended the throne in 1558. For the next fourteen years he served the Queen 
in numerous high offices before her reluctant hand signed his death warrant for high treason; he was thirty-six years old. 


Howard, was one of the most powerful noblemen in Elizabethan England, he was a Privy Councillor, Queen’s Lieutenant in the North and Earl Marshal of England; above all he was trusted with public office despite his Catholic leanings.

 Aged twenty, in 1556, he married sixteen year old Mary Fitzalan daughter and heiress of
Henry Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel  -  
see previous engraving.
Sadly, Mary died in childbirth in October the following year, their son, Philip, grew-up to succeed as Earl of Arundel in his mothers right  -  
see following screen engraving.

In 1558 Thomas Howard married eighteen year old Margaret Audley, daughter of Thomas 1st Baron Audley of Walden. The couple had four children. Margaret died within a few weeks of giving birth to her second son, Lord William Howard, 1563-1640.


In January 1567 Thomas Howard secretly married thirty-one year old Elizabeth Leyburne, daughter of Sir James Leyburn(e), Member of Parliament
for the County of Westmorland, Justice of the Peace and, in 1536, surveyor of the monasteries of Lancashire, and second wife of Thomas Dacre,  
4th Baron Dacre who had died six months previously in 1566.

 On the 4th of September 1567 Elizabeth died in childbirth at the family seat, Kenninghall, Norfolk. Although a devout Catholic her Protestant husband denied Elizabeth access to a priest by “his continual presence in the bedchamber  ...  
as she lay dying.”

 Howard’s marriage to Elizabeth and the award of guardianship of her children by her former deceased husband, Thomas Dacre, two months after her death 
caused bitter acrimony ... ...

In due course Thomas Howard arranged the marriage of Elizabeth and Thomas Dacre’s three daughters; Anne born 1557, Mary born 1563 and Elizabeth born 1564, to his own sons; Philip, Earl of Arundel born 1557, Thomas, Earl of Suffolk born 1561 and Lord William born 1563.

In 1569 a number of nobles, including the Earls of Westmorland and Northumberland - 
those closest to Scotland - were hatching a number of schemes, including a marriage between Norfolk and Mary, Queen of Scots to replace Elizabeth.

Elizabeths displeasure with Norfolk resulted in him being summoned to Court on the 16th of September 1569. Pleading illness he was in fact contemplating a revolt in league with Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmoreland, which became known as the Rising of the North, the unsuccessful attempt by Catholic nobles from Northern England to depose Queen Elizabeth and replace her with Mary.
(Twenty-eight thousand troops successfully crushed the rebellion and seven hundred 
participants were executed.)
Norfolk was arrested on the 3rd of October and taken to the Tower of London.
Ten months to the day later he was released under a promise to renounce all ideas of marrying Mary, reside in his own house and give total loyalty to Queen Elizabeth.
But thirty-three years old Norfolk had not abandoned his ambitions to marry the 
Queen of Scots. In 1571 his plans became linked with The Ridolfi Plot
so named after Italian international banker and ardent Catholic Roberto Ridolfi 
who acted as go-between with plans by English Catholics, King Phillip II of Spain 
and Pope Pius V, to rise in rebellion supported by a Spanish invasion, 
assassinate Queen Elizabeth and place Mary on the throne.

However, the commander of the Spanish armies in the Netherlands, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alva, had severe doubts about the scheme, “there would be no Spanish troops until the English Catholics had actually revolted.”
His plan thwarted, Ridolfi sent letters by courier to the key supporters. The courier was arrested at the port of Dover the messages confirming the existence of a plot and naming some of those involved. Norfolk’s servants were imprisoned, threatened with torture and yielded more information of his complicity in the assassination plot.
The Duke was arrested on the 7th of September and sent yet again to the Tower.
Despite his vigorous claims to the contrary, evidence mounted as to his leading role in the Ridolfi Plot and his continued correspondence with Mary.
He was tried for treason in early January 1572, found guilty and sentenced to death.

The warrant of execution was signed and cancelled by Queen Elizabeth a number of times before Norfolk was led to the scaffold on Tower Hill on the 2nd of June 1572, 
he was thirty-six years old.  

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Philip Howard Earl of Arundel.
From the original of Zuccharo, in the Collection of
 His Grace The Duke of Norfolk   

Engraved by Henry Thomas Ryall 1811-1867 
after the original by Federico Zuccaro 
c.1540-1609 London.


Published March 1 1833, by Harding & Lepard,
Pall Mall East. 

Size of screen engraving: 7 x 5½ inches.

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Philip Howard was born at Arundel House, London, on the 25th of June 1557, 
eldest son of Henry Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk 
and his wife Mary Fitzalan, daughter and 
heiress of Henry Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, 
who died in childbirth.
Although baptised as a Roman Catholic; 
King Felipe II of Spain and Sardinia, 
who attended the ceremony with his wife 
Queen Mary I was one of his godfathers, 
Howard was brought up a Protestant and educated under English historian, and martyrologist, Dr. John Foxe, described as “an extreme Protestant.”

In 1571, at the age of fourteen while attending St. Johns College, Cambridge; from which he graduated in 1574, 
he married fourteen year old Anne Dacre, (right), born 21st March 1557, his step-sister by the late first husband of his father’s third wife Elizabeth Dacre, née Leyburne. 

In 1575, aged eighteen, Philip Howard, first attended the
Court of Queen Elizabeth I who succeeded to the throne in November 1558 at the age of twenty-five.
Upon the death of  his grand-father Henry Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel, Philip he became 13th Earl in 1580.
(Note: Because of numerous forfeitures of title Philip is variously numbered first, thirteenth or twentieth Earl of Arundel.)



In 1582, at the age of twenty-five, Anne, Countess of Arundel along with many of the Howard family converted to Roman Catholicism; it was an extremely dangerous time to do so, particularly for Philip Howard, a second cousin to the Queen.
In April 1585, after attempting to leave England “without permission” Philip Howard was committed to the Tower of London. 
In 1589 he was retained on a charge of high treason, he was twenty-eight years old.


As he lay dying after spending ten years in the Tower on the unproven charge, he petitioned Queen Elizabeth to allow him to see his “beloved wife and his son Thomas” who had been born three months after his imprisonment.
“If he would return to Protestantism” the Queen responded “his request would be granted.” He refused and died alone in the Tower of dysentery on the 19th of October 1595 and was buried in the Chapel Royal of St. Peter ad Vincula inside the walls of the Tower.

Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel was immediately acclaimed a Catholic Martyr 
and was canonised by Pope Paul VI in 1970 as 
“one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.” 1

Philip’s son, Thomas Howard (1585/6-1646), is referred to as the 21st and 2nd Earl of Arundel and 2nd or 4th Earl of Surrey; depending whether the dissolution 
and subsequent reinstatement of titles are taken into account. 2
 He was also, by the “5th creation” made 1st Earl of Norfolk.   (See Portrait Ten.)

1 The Forty Martyrs were a group of lay and religious men and women executed under various laws enacted by Parliament between 1535 and 1679, the first being under King Henry VIII for refusing to support the King’s Act of Supremacy and dissolution of the monasteries.
2 In 1589 following Philips attainment on the charge of high treason all his honours and estates were forfeit to the Crown. In 1604, nine years after his death, they were restored by Act of Parliament to his son, Thomas Howard, 21st  Earl of Arundel.

The Engraver.

Henry Thomas Ryall was born in Somerset, England in August 1811 and studied under mezzotint engraver and landscape painter Samuel William Reynolds, himself a pupil of John Raphael Smith described as “amongst the highest rank of mezzotint engravers.”
He began his career engraving plates for Edmund Lodge’s, “Portraits of Illustrious Personages of Great Britain” and “Portraits of Eminent Conservatives and Statesmen.”
Later, his line and stipple work is described as bringing “a degree of perfection
it had never been seen before.”
Ryall exhibited at the Society of British Artists  and at the Royal Academy.
He died at his home in Berkshire in September 1867.

The Original Artist.

Frederico Zuccaro was born at Saint’Angelo in Vado, Italy c.1540, the son of little known 
painter Ottaviano Zuccari. Ten years later the family moved to Rome where Frederico 
studied under his elder brother Taddeo, twelve years his senior.
In 1574 he came to England where he received a commission from the Earl of Leicester (Robert Dudley) to portray himself and Queen Elizabeth. He also painted Mary, Queen of Scots, Sir Francis Walsingham (Queen Elizabeth’s principal secretary); Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, Sir Nicholas Bacon, father of Sir Francis Bacon. No doubt it was during this time he painted the portrait of Philip Howard.
Not long before his death in London in 1609 his artistic contributions were recognised with the 
award of the Knight Grand Cross (Cavaliere di Gran Croce).

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The most Illustrious & most excellent Lady,
The Lady Alathea Talbot &c Countefse of 
Arundell & Surry & the first Countefse of England.
Alathea, Countess of Arundel
Born 1586 - Died 3 June 1654.

Engraving by Richard Gaywood 1650-1680  
after Sir Anthony Van Dyck 1599-1641

Published by William Richardson, 
York House, No. 31 Strand  -  June 1796

Lady Alathea Talbot, 14th Baroness Talbot, 
17th Baroness Strange of Blackmere, 
13th Baroness Furnivall, 
Countess of Arundel and Surrey, 
and First Countess of England to give her her full titles, 
was born in 1586. (Other sources say 1585 and 1590.)

Alathea, (pronounced Al-eeth-ia) was the third daughter and sole heiress of her parents, Gilbert Talbot,
7th Earl of Shrewsbury 1 and Mary née Cavendish daughter of courtier Sir William Cavendish, M.P., 
of Chatsworth and his wife Elizabeth (née Talbot), 
more popularly known as “Bess of Hardwick.” 2
Queen Elizabeth 1st was her Godmother.
Aged fifteen Alathea married nineteen year old Sir Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel 
(see following screen engraving), 
son of Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel (see previous engraving) and his wife, 
Anne Dacre, in September 1606. They had three sons: 
Sir James Howard, Lord Maltravers (b. July 1607 d. July 1624); Sir Frederick Howard, 
22nd Earl of Arundel (b. August 1608 d. April 1652) 
and William Howard, Viscount Stafford, born 1622, died 1680.

1  Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury's parents were George Talbot,  6th Earl and Gertrude Manners, daughter of Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland and Eleanor Paston, daughter of Sir William Paston.

2  When Gilbert Talbot married Mary née Cavendish in 1547 he sold his property in Suffolk 
and moved to Derbyshire where they purchased the Chatsworth estate in 1549.
They commenced building Chatsworth House three years later. 
With her inherited fortune Lady Alathea bought back some of her family's former property, 
including, in 1607, Arundel House, London, for £4,000. Following use as a garrison in the English Civil War, 1642-1651, the house fell into disrepair and demolished c.1680.

Alathea, Countess of Arundel eventually inherited great wealth and huge estates in Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire and Derbyshire from her father and mother (died respectively 1616 and 1632) and maternal grandmother, Bess of Hardwick who died 1608.


Circa 1605 Alathea married Thomas Howard, 14th Earl of Arundel, his title and “some of his estates” having being restored following accession of King James VI of England and Ireland, son of Mary, Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley.

The Earl and Countess had six sons and two daughters: 
Catherine Howard, Charles Howard, Gilbert Howard and Thomas Howard dying young:

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 Sir James Howard, Lord Maltravers, born on the 17th of July 1607, King James I was his Godfather. Sir James died unmarried of smallpox in July 1624 aged seventeen.

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Sir Henry Frederick Howard was born on the 15th of August 1608 
and became 22nd Earl of Arundel. (See Engraving 11.) 
He married Lady Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of the 3rd Duke of Lennox; 
their eldest son, Thomas, became 5th Duke of Norfolk.

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Lord William Howard was born in 1612, he married Lady Mary Stafford daughter 
of the 3rd Duke of Buckingham. 
Lord William died in 1680.

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Lady Anne Mary Howard was born in 1614 and died at Stamford, Fairfield County, 
on the 31st July 1658, 


PLEASE NOTE:

The numerous sources I consulted seem to agree Mary Anne Howard was born in 1614 the daughter of Alathea and Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, and she died in 1658.
Most, without question, quote her biography in on-line family trees which I have attempted to précis below.  However, one in particular throws doubt on her marriage (quoting no evidence) and consequently all subsequent events.
In historic and even more recent research, dates, spelling and “facts” frequently disagree.
My biography of Lady Mary Anne’s life is made “on balance.”
I acknowledge not all dates seem to agree.
My principal sources being biographies of her parents, Countess Alathea 
and Lord Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel.
In addition Ancestry records Mary Anne and her husband having had two children", another source records five, yet another six children giving their names and dates of birth and death. 

“Circa.1633, in London, England, Anne Mary Howard married twenty-three year old Jeffrey Ferris born in Leicestershire, England.”
Jeffrey Ferris was a builder and one of the seven founders of the town of Greenwich, Fairfield County, Massachusetts. Lady Mary Anne Howard was born in Greenwich, London, England, in 1614, and some records state Ferris and Lady Mary married in London, c.1634, possibly in Greenwich? Strong connections as to why they named the new town in America to which they emigrated, Greenwich?

(Other accounts state they married in Watertown, Massachusetts about 1633.)



In 1634, during the twenty year long Puritan Great Migration3, the Ferris family including Mary and her husband emigrated to New England . The twenty-year long migration of English Puritans, mostly in family groups, had commenced in 1620 with the setting up of the colonies in Providence, Rhode Island and Massachusetts Bay.
Records indicate Mary and Jeffrey joined the fledgling settlement of Fairfield4, Connecticut in 1634. 

Mary and Jeffrey Ferris had five sons and one daughter,
all survived into adulthood: 

Peter 1636-1706, 
Joseph 1638-1736, James 1638-1705,
Mary 1639-1707, John 1640-1715 and James 1643-1726. 

The former Lady Mary Howard died at Stamford, Fairfield County, on the 31st July 1658, her husband died at Greenwich, Fairfield County on the 31st May 1666.
Jeffrey Ferris is interred in Tomac Burial Ground of the First Congregational Church of Greenwich. (See window right.) 


The burial ground is located on land bought from the Asamuck and Patomuck bands of Indians in July 1640; amongst the witnesses to the Deed was Jeffery Ferris.

3 Puritans were English Protestants who believed the Church of England had not totally broken free of Roman Catholic practices. Their solution the Great Puritan Migration, (1620-1640), when family groups sought by emigration the freedom to practice their “more protestant” puritanism in New England. 

4 It was in the early 1630’s Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony at Fairfield County. 




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THOMAS HOWARD  -  EARL OF ARUNDEL
P. P. Rubens, pinxit.    In the collection of Dr. Mead.    J. Houbraken. Sculps. Amst. 1743
                                           Impensis J. & P. Knapton, Londini 1744
 

Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, was born on the 7th of July 1586, the son of Philip Howard, 13th Earl of Arundel, (who was canonised by Pope Paul VI in 1970 for being one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales*), and Anne Dacre, daughter of Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre of Gilsland. In September, 1606, he married “The Most Illustrious and Excellent Lady, the Lady Alethea Talbot, Countess of Arundel and First Countess of England.”

They had three children: William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, 1614-1680, executed for treason; Henry Frederick Howard, 15th Earl of Arundel, 1608-1652 (see Portrait 11), and James Howard, Lord Maltravers, c.1607-1624, died unmarried of smallpox.
An English courtier during the reigns of King James I, (son of Mary, Queen of Scots),
and his son, King Charles I; Howard stands out in history as an art collector rather than a politician. During several Grand Tours of Europe, he brought home to England the Arundel Marbles, a collection of beautifully carved early 17th century Ancient Greek sculptures and inscriptions which were gifted along with most of his collection of books, prints, drawings and several hundred paintings to the University of Oxford and found today in the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archæology, Oxford.

Thomas Howard is referred to as the 2nd, 14th or 21st Earl of Arundel depending how one views the numerous forfeitures and recreations of the earldom. Equally and by the same token he was also 2nd or 4th Earl of Surrey. By the fifth creation he was titled the 1st Earl of Norfolk. All titles aside he is known best as “the Collector Earl.”
Thomas died, aged sixty, on the 4th of October 1646 in Padua, Italy, and was buried at the family home, Arundel Castle, Sussex.






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HENRICVS ARVNDELLIÆ COMES
Antonius Van Dyck Eques      pinxit     P. Lombart Sculpfit      londini avec Privileige du Roy
                                                                                                                             et ex parsis


Each portrait is behind glass. This is the only one where the glass is cracked.

A three-quarter length portrait of Henry Howard, 15th Earl of Arundel wearing 
sword and full armour; both hands hold his helmet which sits alongside his 
Earl Marshal of England baton on top of a stone plynth against which his right side rests.  
The plynth bears words in French:
“DROIT ET AVANT” which translates: “First be Correct  -  Then Take Action.”

THE ENGRAVER - PIERRE LOMBART

This print was made by Pierre Lombart, a French Protestant engraver who worked in London from c.1649 until he returned to Paris c.1663.  Born c.1612 he is described as being “the finest engraver in England” at the time, his plates being lettered “a Londres.” 
The diarist John Evelyn records “the famous engraver” Lombart visiting him in June 1653
 “to see his collection.” After his return to France Lombart continued to make “distinguished portrait engravings.” In 1673 he was received by the Académie Royale de Peinture. 
He died in Paris on the 30th of October 1681 aged sixty-nine.


Henry Frederick Howard was born on the 15th of August 1608 the second son of 
Thomas Howard, 14th Earl of Arundel and his wife Lady Alathea, née Talbot. 
He was baptised at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, 
(a hunting lodge build for King Henry I), 
in the presence of Queen Anne of Denmark, his godmother, 
wife of King James I of England / VI of Scotland. From birth to 1640 he was styled 
Lord Maltravers after which he became Baron Mowbray until 1652.
Following the death of his father in 1646 Henry became 15th Earl of Arundel, 
5th Earl of Surrey and 2nd Earl of Norfolk, and nominal head of the Howard family.

From age sixteen he was educated at St. John’s College, Cambridge. 
Four years later he served a brief term as Member of English Parliament for Arundel, 
and from 1634 represented Callan in the Irish House of Commons. 

In 1640, aged thirty-two, as his father’s eldest son, he was called to the House of Lords 
as Baron Mowbray, one of his father’s subsidiary titles.
In March 1626 seventeen year old Henry married sixteen year old 
Lady Elizabeth Stuart, (1610-1674), daughter of the 3rd Duke of Lennox, 
a second cousin to King James VI of Scotland 
and I of England. They had nine sons and three daughters. 
Their first child, Thomas, born 1626/7, became 6th Duke of Norfolk but died 
without issue in 1677. Their second son, Henry, 1629-1694, became 6th Duke of Norfolk.

Henry Howard, 15th Earl of Arundel, died in London on the 17th of April 1652 
aged forty-three and is buried at Arundel Castle in Sussex, England.

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Henry Howard Earl of Norwich, &c.
From an Original by Sir P. Lely, 1677.      *     Overall size of engraving 8 x 4½ inches.

(From the 1st of December 1677 6th Duke of Norfolk.)

Henry Howard, Earl of Norwich, succeeded older brother Thomas Howard, 
5th Duke of Norfolk, who died unmarried on the 1st of December 1677 at the age of fifty.
Henry’s subsidiary titles were: Earl of Arundel, Earl of Surrey, Earl of Norfolk, 
Earl of Norwich, Baron Mowbray, Baron Maltravers, Baron Furnivall 
and Baron Howard of Castle Rising.

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Henry Howard Earl of Norwich &c., second son of Henry Frederick Howard, Earl of Arundel (previous portrait), and his wife Lady Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of Esme Stewart,K.G.,
 third Duke of Lennox, was born at Arundel House, London, on the 12th of July 1628 
and died on the 13th of January 1684 aged fifty-five also at Arundel House. 
He is buried at Arundel Castle, Sussex, England.

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Henry Howard, second son of Henry Frederick Howard, Earl of Arundel 
(previous portrait), and his wife Lady Elizabeth Stuart, 
daughter of Esme Stuart (Stewart), third Duke of Lennox, was born at 
Arundel house, London, on the 12th of July 1628. 
At the age of forty-three he became 6th Duke of Norfolk on the death of his elder 
brother who died in an asylum in the north Italian city of Padua 
on the 1st of December 1677. 
The lands and Dukedom of Norfolk having been restored by King Charles II in 1660 following its forfeiture owing to the fourth Duke being found guilty of treason for his participation in the Ridolfi Plot to overthrow and murder Queen Elizabeth I.

Henry’s term as sixth Duke bode-ill from the outset.
 He chose the occasion to announce his marriage to his longtime mistress, 
thirty year old Jane Bickerton, his first wife, Lady Anne Somerset, having died in 1662. 
The couple had had four children, 
the eldest son, also called Henry; born c.1654 became 7th Duke of Norfolk. 
The younger son, Lord Thomas Howard, born 1662, was lost at sea in November 1689.
 He married Mary Elizabeth Savile and they had six children, the two eldest surviving 
sons became respectively eighth and ninth dukes of Norfolk. 
It was the perfect recipe for the violent family quarrel that immediately broke out.

The acrimony was so bitter Henry and Jane went abroad to allow time for things to settle down.
They had three sons, George, James and Frederick, all who died childless and three daughters; Catherine and Elizabeth became nuns. 

Their third daughter, Lady Philippa Howard, 
born on the 9th of September 1678 at Arundel House, London, 
married Ralph Standish and had issue.

The diarist John Evelyn seems to have had a very low opinion of Jane. 
He wrote of his visit to the Duke to view his fine collection of pictures; 
“Went to visit the Duke of Norfolk and to know whether he would sell me any of his cartoons 
and other drawings of Raphael and the great masters. He answered me that he would part with and sell anything for money but his wife the Duchess, who stood near him; and I thought with myself that if I were in his condition she would be the first thing I would be glad to part with.”

Following the Duke’s death in 1684, Jane married Thomas Maxwell,
a professional soldier in the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards and later in the Irish Royal Army. As a Jacobite party member and supporter of  the deposed King Charles II he was briefly imprisoned in England, later “entering the French service on the Continent” where he was killed at the Battle of Marsaglia, (near Turin), part of the Nine Years’ War between France and Spain, on the 4th of October 1693, resulting in a decisive French victory.

Jane, the former Duchess of Norfolk, died barely five weeks previously 
on the 28th of August 1693.


Lady Philippa Standish (née Howard) daughter of Henry Howard,
 6th Duke of Norfolk and Jane Bickerton, Duchess of Norfolk, 
marries Ralph Standish.



Their daughter, Cecilia, marries William Towneley of Towneley.
Their daughter, also called Cecilia, marries Charles Strickland.
Their son, Thomas Strickland takes the name Standish of Sizergh; 
he married Anastasia Lawson, daughter of Sir John Lawson, Bt., 
of Brough Hall, (near Catterick), where Anastasia lived.




Thomas and Anastasia Standish’s son, Charles Standish was born 1790

  
Charles Standish married Emmeline Conradine, daughter of M. de Methiesen 
in February 1789.

Their son, also called Charles Standish, married Angélique Léontine Sabine Alexandrine de Noailles, daughter of Antonin Claude Dominique Just de Noailles, 4th duc de Mouchy, 
7th Prince of Poix, in February 1822.

*
[ Although inheriting the Standish estates, 
Charles Henry Standish never resided on them, 
choosing to spend most of his time on the continent. 
In 1822 he married “a French lady 
with a very distinguished French family tree – 
Angelique Leontine Sabine de Noailles.” ]

*
Their daughter, Léontine Standish, married Comte Gerard Gustavus Ducarel de la Pasture, 4th Marquis de la Pasture.

Their daughter, Monica de la Pasture, 
married Sir George Bullough, on the 24th of June, 1903 
at Kinloch Castle, Isle of Rum, Scotland.



Their daughter, Hermione Bullough, born on the 5th of November 1906, married the Honourable John Frederick Lambton, 
5th Earl of Durham on the 4th of March 1931.

Their son, the Honourable John George Lambton 
was born on the 10th of June 1932.
He died, unmarried, on the 21st of August 2012.

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